Peru

niños peruanos ropa

Figure 1.--This portrait shows a Peruvia boy and a girl, persumably siblings, holding hands in fancy outfits with white long stockings. The portrait is not dated, but looks like the late 1870s to us. The outfits seem similar to what Spanish children might wear. These would be affluent children from an urban family, probably in Lima. This is not how most Peruvian children were dressed. The names of the children are written on the back, but they are hard to read. I think that they are José and Issura Carrabio R. Put your cursor on the image to see the back. Perhaps you can make it out better.

We have very limited information on Peru ar this time. This page is just link various HBC pages about Peru, until we can build a Peruvian country page. Hopefully Peruvian readers visiting HBC will help help us with this as HBC develops. Any discussion of clothing in Peru must begin with the Inca and other Andean Native American civilixzations. The Inca were renowed for their marvelous textiles. Peru played a fundamental role in the development of modern Europe. While the Conquistadores in the 16th century were primarily after gold, the humble potato made possible a population explosion that played a key role in the industrial revolution and the making of modern Europe. Native Americans make up a sizeable proportion of the Peruvian population. There are native American tribal groups in both the Sierra and Amazonian basin. One Amazonian tribe is the Shaur, the largest of the Jivaro group. We do have a Peruvian artist that has painted a scene of a boy in traditional clothing. We also have a 1917 portrait of a boy with an Eton collar. A fashionalble Peruvian boy from an affluent family of European origin in the late 19th and early 20th century might wear a suit with an Eton collar. We believe that this was common throughout Latin America at the time. Most Peruvian boys at the time, however, were very poor and still not wearing European fashions. The most noted Peruvian photographer is Martin Chambi. We have some information on school uniform.

Tenemos información muy limitada sobre el Perú a este momento. Esta página es solamente para guiarle al varias HBC páginas del acoplamiento justo sobre Perú, hasta que podemos construir una página propio del país peruana. Esperanzadamente los lectores peruanos que visitan HBC ayudarán con esto mientras que HBC se dessarrollo. Cualquier discusión de arropar en Perú debe comenzar con el Inca y otros civilizations americanos nativos andinos. El Inca era famoso para sus textiles maravillosos. Perú desempeñó un papel fundamental en el desarrollo de Europa moderna. Mientras que el Conquistadores en el 16º siglo estaba sobre todo buscando para oro, la patata humilde hizo posible una explosión de población que desempeñó un papel dominante en la revolución industrial y la desarollo de Europa moderna. Los nativos americanos componen a una proporción importante de la población peruana. Hay grupos tribales del nativo americano en la sierra y el lavabo amazónico. Una tribu amazónica es el Shaur, el más grande del grupo de Jivaro. Tenemos un artista Peruano que ha pintado una escena de un muchacho en la ropa tradicional. También tenemos un retrato 1917 de un muchacho con un collar de Eton. Un muchacho peruano fashionalble de una familia afluente del origen europeo en el 19º ultimo y vigásimo 20º siglo pudo llevar un traje con un cuello de Eton. Creo que esro fue común a través de América latina en ese epoca. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los muchachos peruanos, eran muy pobres y todavía no usaban estilos europeos. El photographo Peruano mas mas notable es Martin Chambi. Tenemos algun information on uniformes esolares.

Geography

Peru is the third largest country in South America, much larger than most European countries, The countryt located in the tropics south of the equator. Peru has an amazing diversity of climate and as a result flora and fauna. Pachamama was the mythical Inca mother earth and Pachamama realm inlude one of the most bio-diverse regions on earh. snow-capped peaks, deser, rain forest, lush agricultural land, and costal regions. Peru is divided into three sharply different geographical regions: the Pacific coastal strip, the Andes mountains (Sierra), and the Amazonian lowlands. The narrow coastal strip between the Sierraand gthe Pacific Ocdan is arid in the north and desert in the south. Misty cloud forests descend into tropical lowlands and desert. The Atacama Desert is the driest of the worlds deserts. The arid coast is periodically punctured by rivers cascading down from the Sierra, leaving a green arable strip. There are avout 490 of these short relatively small rivers. Lima and other major cities are located along such rivers. These ruver oases were developed as agricultural centers by Native Americams. Irrigation channels over the centuries have made use of the fertile silt deposited by the rivers. The Andes is the world's second highest mountain chain, with peaks over 20,000 feet just 60 miles inland, creating precipitous imvlines. Huascaran (22,200 ft) is Pru's highest opeak and the world's highest tropical peak. Although located near the equator, the Peruvian Andes have year-round glaciers above 16,000 feet. While the western slopes receive little rainfall, the eastern slopes have cloud forests receiving heavy rain flowing ino the Amazonian Basin. The Sierra altititudes between 10,000 and 13,000 feet have productivev land supporting about half of Peru's population. The Inca population was centered in the Sierra ekith the caopital in the south at Cuzco. The rugged Sierra features jagged mountain ranges separated by deep canyons. The country Amazon Basin stretches along the eastern part of Peru and represents more than half of the country in area. This huge, heacily forested region is fed by countless small rivers and streams, themost important floing into the Amazon are the Maranon, Hallaga and Ucayali rivers. The largest Amazinian region is in the northaround Iquitos.

History

Peru is one of the great world cradels of civilization. It like Mesoamerica is where civilzation occurred indeendently (Egypt and India) had the example of Mesopotamia. Peru of all the cradels of civilzation is surely the most unlikely. Here civilzation developed in the cold Andean higlands and the arid coast. It was one of the great accomplishmets of mankind--an amazing technical achievement. Although still a stone-age people, pre-literate people, they had many important achievements. The most significant was the domestication of the lowly potato which was to transform Europe. The best known Peruvian Native American civilization is of course the Inca. The Inca Empire was the largest such civilization, but rested on a cultural and technological base including many earlier cultures. The Empire lasted on a short period before being cut short by the arrival of Franciso Pizarro and his Spanish Conquistadores. The Spanish wanted gold, but it was the potato that was Peru's great contribution to human society. Inca society was destroyed in the collision with the Conquistadores and the Catholic Church. The Spanish Conquest of Peru is one of the great epics of history. Europeans diseases ravaged the Native American peoples. The pre-Conquest population and the extent of the resulting pagues is still debated by historians, but population estimates have risen in recent yeas as are estimates of the totality od the size of the population disaster. Peru languished within the Spanish Empire for over three centuries. Thus much of the history of Peru is the Spanish colonial history. It is largely a feudal history with the country's much-diminished Native American population held as serfs on large rural estates owned by the Spanish ruling class. There was very little economic development and even less social development. Much of the population did not ebnter the moneyed economy until the 20th century. Peru was the center of Spanish royalist support during the Wars of Independence. Sucre fought the last major battle of the independence struggle, defeating the last important royalist army in the Sierra near Ayacucho (1824). Independence did not, however, bring prosperity to the Peruvian people. There are large areas of Peru today that support smaller populations than during the pre-Conquest era. Peru fought a damaging war with Chile--the War of the Pacific (1879-83).

Economy

Peru played a fundamental role in the development of modern Europe. While the Conquistadores in the 16th century were primarily after gold, the humble potato made possible a population explosion that played a key role in the industrial revolution and the making of modern Europe.

Clothing

Any discussion of clothing in Peru must begin with the Inca and other Andean Native American civilizations. The Inca were renowed for their marvelous textiles. We also have a 1917 portrait of a boy with an Eton collar. A fashionalble Peruvian boy from an affluent family of European origin in the late 19th and early 20th century might wear a suit with an Eton collar. W believe that this was common throughout Latin America at the time. Most Peruvian boys at the time, however, were very poor and still not wearing European fashions.

Ethnicity

Peru is a multi-ethnic society of both Native Americans and Europeans. There are Native American (Amerindian) tribal groups in both the Andean Sierra (Highlands) and Amazonian basin. The largest group is native-Americans. They are in themselves a diverse group. The main groups are the Quechua- and Aymará-speaking tribes, but there are also some smaller tribes in the Sierra. . The Inca speaking Quechua from the Titicaca Basin are the best known, but were relatively late comers to Andean history. They conquiered many other Andean groups (14-15th centuries). While the Inca cionquered the Andean tribes, they did not venture into the Amazonian basin and tribes there were unconquered until the arrival of the Spanish. Historians today debate the level of civilization and population of the Amazonian Basin Native-Americans. One Amazonian tribe is the Shaur, the largest of the Jivaro group. Wuth the arruval of tghe Soanish, the Native American population collapsed, largely because of lack of resistance to European diseases like small pox, scarlet fever, and measles. The population of the Peruvian Andes before the arrival of the Spanish is variously estimated at 4-7 million people. Fewer than 1 million were left in the first colonial census (1777). Today the populatuin has increased to about 8 million. Acculturated Spanish-speaking Native Americans ar known as 'cholos'. The arrival of the Spanish conquistadores led by Francisco Pizarro introduced the Spanish into the Peruvian ethnic mix (16th century). Today the Spanish and other Europeans constiture about 15 percent of the popualtion. Small groups of Germans, Italians, and Swiss play an important role in the Peruvian economy, commerce, finance, and industry. People of mixed Native-American and Spanish/European ancestry are commonly called Mestizos and constitute slightly less than 40 percent of the population. The pace of aculturation into Peruvian national culture has increased during the late-20th century as the public school sytem expanded. Asian Peruvians includung many Japanese constuture about 3 percent of the population. Chinese and Japanese Peruvians operate small businesses. Some Japanese have been successful in agriculturen and fisheries. There are alo a small number of Afro-Peruvians descendants of slaves imported during the colonial period. Their population is small because so few slaves were imported.

Family

Family portraits are very useful. As they include indivividuals of different genders and ages we not only see the outfits of individuals, but of the fashions that others wore at the same time. And the imafes of different families provide social-class information as well as conventions like family sizes. We have not been able to compile much information about Peru, however, as our Peruvian archive is so limited. We hope to gradually collect some informtion on Peruvian families. We notice a Native American family coming to market in Cusco bout 1930.

Activities

We have some information on school uniform.

Art

We do have a Peruvian artist that has painted a scene of a boy in traditional clothing.

Photography

The most noted Peruvian photographer is Martin Chambi.





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Created: August 14, 2002
Last updated: 9:47 AM 11/14/2015