The Cold War at its heart was a struggle for the soul of Germany. Here Stalin had undercut Soviet Cold War prosopects by the Red Army orgy of rape at the end of the War and reparations imposed in its eastern occupation zone and culminated by a brazen effort to seize West Berlin leading to the Allied Airlift. There were, however, two countries which might have voted in the Communists--France and Italy. This would have undercut American efforts to defend Western Europe. France was saved from going Communist by General DeGualle and the Free French Movement. The Cold War is often seen as a bi-polar struggle between East and West. The reality was much more complicated. France had been humbled by the Germans in World War II. After the War, France attempted resurrect its colonial empire. This led to two failed colonial wars (Vietnam and Algeria). In search of an indendent defense capability, France under General De Gaulle built an atomic bomb--the Force de Frappe. France also pulled out the NATO combined command. French leaders as a cornerstone of its foreign policy sought to develop a new relationship with Germany and out of that effort the European Union has grown helping to fashion a new Europe. The collapse of the Soviet threat has resulted in major shifts in the European-American relationship.
The fall of France in June 1940 was a turning point in European history. France had since the Middle Ages been one of the leading powers in Europe. At times France under Louis XIV and Napoleon, France dominated Europe. The rapid defeat of the French Army by the German Army startled the world (May-June 1940). The French Army had been the cornerstone of Allied resistance to the Germans in World War I and had been seen as the most powerful military force in the world at the time. France's defeat in 1940 fundamentally changed the image of France in the world. France would continue to be important in the post-War world, but would no longer be seen as one of Great Powers and would not have a seat at the tow mahor conferences at the end of the War -- Yalta (February 1945)and Potsdam (July 1945).
The great hardships of the German occupation continued into the immediate post-War era. One of the principal problems confronting France after World War II was rebuilding the country's shattered economy. Unlike Germany and the German occupied East, however, war damage was relatively limited. The quick collapse of the French Army (June 1940) and the German Army (August 1944) meantg that a wide swath of the country was untouched physically by the War. That is not to say there ws not significant damage. The allies had targheted industrial plants supporting the Germn war effort such as Renault truck plants. Port citities supporting the U-boat effort were also targetted. A major dislocation was the agricultural economy. The most serious damage came from the Allied Transportation Plan designed to cut off German troops manning the Atlantic Wall in preparation for D-Day, bridges and railway infrastructures were a shables. Another report suggests that 1.2 million buildings were destroyed or damaged. [Asselain, p. 108.] Repairing the damage took several years. Because of of price and marketing controls as well as German seizures, many farmers withdrew from the market, chosing to reduce planting and acerage tilled. This meant serious harvest shortfalls in 1943-45. [Mouré, pp. 272-73.] This was something easily rectified. Farm infrastructure and farmers were not damaged and killed. Once farmers were able to obtain reasonable prices for their harvests. The industrial recovery was more difficult. France negotiated a treaty with the United States cancelled a large part of its still unpaid World War I debt, a sum amounting to some $2 billion. The arrangement was known as the Blum-Byrnes agreement (accord Blum-Byrnes) (1946). The agreement was negotiated by Secretary of State James F. Byrnes and representatives of the French government Léon Blum and Jean Monnet. Industrial reconstruction began even before the war ended (1945). French economic recovery was promoted by a baby boom which began even durung the German occupation (1942). We are not sure just why it began during the German occupation, I don't think this was the case for most other countries. The Provisional Government (PG) led by Charles de Gaulle and composed of communists, socialists and Gaullists, took many bold steps. We are not sure about the economic consequences of many of these actions. The PG nationalized key economic sectors (energy, air transport, savings banks, insurance companies ) and large corporations (such as Renault). They also created a Social Security system and works councils and set up a welfare system. he Commissariat général du Plan was created to begin national economic planning (1946). Jean Monnet is put in charge. The First Plan was the Plan de modernisation et d’équipement (1947-52). This focused on key economic activities (energy, steel, cement, transport, and agriculture equipment). Up to this time, French agriculture was largely unmechanized. The Second Plan had broader aims, dealing with housing construction, urban development, scientific research, manufacturing industries (1954-57). [Asselain, p. 112.] The Communist Party had gained great prestige during the WAr as a result of their role in the Resistance. The economic plight of the people created more support for the Party which in national multiparty elections ganered as much as 23 percent of the vote, making it one of the country's principal political prties and participated in various goverments.
The Communist Party had gained great prestige as a result of their role in the Resistance. The economic plight of the people created more support for the Party which in national multiparty elections ganered as much as 23 percent of the vote, making it one of the country's principal political prties and participated in various goverments. (The Communist Party today only commands about 4 percent of the national vote.) The provisions for proportional representation ensruned in France's new constitution led to a framentation of political power (1947). The result was short-lived governments based on unstable political coalitions of small contending parties. Goverments lassted for months and in somne cases only a few weeks. The Communists were at first the largest party, but not a majority and thus could not form a Government. The Communists in 1947 were expeled from the Government. Without the Communists, the Government coalitions became even more unstable because so many small parties were involved. The result was a series of unstable coalitions and short-lived governments. This made major decissions on economic and poltical issues virtually impossible. The American Marshall Plan in 1947 helped France and other European countries revitalize their economies. This helped to prevent Communist success in Western Europe. Some of the major issues at the time were the relationship with Germany, France's role in the Cold War, the country's colonial empire, and the economy. General de Gaulle, Fance's first post-War leader retired, frustrated with the sitution and his inability to dominate the Government. The effort to restore colonial rule in Indo-China resulted in disaster at Dien-ben-Phu in 1953. France also attempted to maintain control over Algeria, but a bloody insurgency continued throughout the 1950s.
General Charles de Gaulle is the most important French political leader of the 20th century. His name today is averywhere in France and the former colonies (airport, streets, places, ect.). De Gaulle commanded an armored division in the first year of World War II. He refused to surrender after the German invasion in 1940. He escapd to France and organized the Free French resistance to the German's and the Vichy French Government colaborating with the Germans. He made inspired radio broadcasts to occupied France. De Gaulle quarled with both Churchill and Roosevelt who did not recognize his Free French movement as the Goverment of France. One point of contention was Vichy. De Gaulle wanted to attack Vicvhy wherever possible which until 1944 meant in the colonies. The British after destroying much of the French fleet at Oran, were more willing to deal with Vichy to prevent Vichy from entering the War on the Axis side. De Gaulle forced to depend on British and American aid and support felt slighted on many occassioins. After D-Day, however, his popularity helped him to quickly organize a government in the liberated areas.
The Communists emerged from the War as the single most powerful political party in France. The Communists gained enormous prestige from their role in the resistance movement to the NAZI occupation. The French right wing was deeply involved in cooperating with the NAZIs through the Vichy regime. There was a danger after the War that France might even elect a Communist Government. De Gaulle's prestige was a major factor in preventing the election of a Communist Government. The Communist Partt would remain, however, an important political force abd coninues to play a rile ikn French politics today. We wonder about the thinking process of French Communists. Before the War, the oppresive nature of the Soviet regime was not fully understood. As the Cod War progressed, more and more information came out about Stalin's rule and the Gulag. And oppresive Soviet policies were wudely publicized, as a result of the Berlin Air Lift, the East German worker's riots, the Hunharian Revolution, and the Berlin Wall. We notice a postcard written home by a French Communist in Berlin named Claire. It is a fascinating little peace of Cold War history. We wonder if she really believed what she wrote or was trying to burish up her KGB file.
The Fourth Republic attempted to retain its colonial pssessions after World war II. It quickly pulled out of Syria, but fought two costly colonial wars in Indo-China (Vietnam) and Algeria. The fall of Diem-ben-phu ended the war in Indo-China (1953). The war in Algeria continued during the 1950s and was a major cause of the fallmof the Fourth Republic.
French intellectuals showed an embarassing and protracted sympathy for Stalin. [Judt] This is something that modern French intelectuasls would like to forget, but it is in fasct the case. I am not altogether why this was the case. Certainly the dominant ideolgical thread in French intelectual thought is leftist or socialist. Leftist thinlers tend to make excuses for leftist regimes just as rightist thinkers tend to excuse the excesses of rightest regimes. This tendency in also part explains the continued hositity of French intelectuals to the United States. Despite the barbarity of Soviet Communism and the descreiting of socialist economics, there is still a lingering left-wing orientation of many French intelectuals.
De Gaulle out of power wrote his memoirs as did Churchill. He also worked on a new constitution with a much more powerful presidency. As the Algerian situation worsened, De Gaulle promised to solve it, but insisted on changes in the French constitution.
General Charles de Gaulle was called by the population in 1958. He served as president until 1969. The Constitution was changed, strenhthening the presidency. He solved the Algerian population by withdrawing from Algeria and recognizing the country's independence. Almost all of the French colonists returned to France as well as Algerians who cooperated with France. The Fifth Republic proved much more stable than the Fourth Republic. Not only was there a strong president, but the political parties coalesed into larger units. De Gaulle governed through the Gaulist Party, a center right coalition. President de Gaulle wanted a more independent foreign policy for France. He was afraid of "dirigism" and isolation. Key elements of his foreign policy were nuclear weapons and a new role in NATO (OTAN).
De Gaulle accelerated the French nuclear weapns program. He was not convinced that the American nuclear umbrella was sufficent. He feared that America would not use its nuclear weapons to protect Europe. He thus believed that full independence required France to have nuclear weapons. France thus became the world's fourth nuclear power. The main delivery system was through submarines. De Gaulle's defence policy was based on the principle that nuclear weapons would render France invulnerable, guaranteeing freedom and peace. The French called this "nuclear dissuasion". France eventually built 700 atom bombs, ranging from 12 kt to 1 megaton. The French submarines each carried 90 nuclear war heads and had the capacity to reach the principal points on the globe. There was widespread agreement within France on this polict, except on the part of the Communists who were influenced by the Soviet Union. The extent of the american resolution seems a not unreasonable question to ask. There is also some reason to believe that the independent French deterent served to complicate Soviet strategic assessments.
France was one of the founding members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) which became the backbone of the Westrn response to Soviet aggression. The Soviet Union on Stalin's orders had seized control of countrie throughout Eastern and Central Europe, including democratic Czecoslovakia (1948). NATO meant that unlike after World War I, America would not withdraw from Europe. And only American power could stop Stalin and the Red Army. NATO structured the defense of Western Europe primarily around the West German and French armis and military instalations in those two countrie. This was backed up with the merican nuclear umbrella. France ws particularly important because West Hemany had a long bofrder with the Soviet dominated Warsaw Pact. And as a result, West Germany and the military instalations there would feel the full
brunt of a Soviet invasion. France as a real area would provide the back up for a miliary response. A crisis in Algeria led to Charles De Gaulle's return to power (May 1958). He was clearly disturbed, despit NATO's success, with the internaldynamic with in NATO. In particular he resented the important role the United States played in NATO and the often-noted special American relationship with Britain. We suspect that his World War II experiences, especially the treatment by President Roosevelt played a role in his thinking. Desatisfaction with NATO was not entirely DeGualle's doing, but he was more determined to take action than other French leaders. Within month of returning to power, De Gualle fired off a memorandum to President Eisenhower and Prime Minister Macmillan (September 1958). In it he argued for a tripartite directorate to direct NATO that would put France on an equal footing with the United States and Britain. Disatisfied with the responses he received, President DeGualle began to construct an independent French defence force. DeGuall was focused on a possibe Soviet invasion and wanted option of reaching a possible separate peace rather than being drawn into a masive NATO-Warsaw Pact war. This of course cut at the heart of the whole idea of NATO. DeGualle never withdrew France from NATO, but began separting the French military command structure. This was a done in a number of derscrete steps. His first step was to withdrew its Mediterranean Fleet from NATO command (February 1959). The majpr steps occurred during the Kennedy and Johnson Administrations. President Kennedy's Secretary of State, Dean Rusk, was in France attending a NATO meeting. Preident DeGaulle told him that he wanted all U.S. military out of France as soon as possible. Rusk famously responded "Does that include those who are buried here?"
A lasting rapprochement was perued with Germany. Beginning with the Commun Market, France and Germany have persued a new relationhip which has bbeen the cornerstone of the European Union.
France under the Fifth Republic granted independence to most of the remaining colonie ( Africa, Indo-china, Algeria, Madagascar ,ect.. ) Unlike some of the other colonial powers, France did not pull out of many of its former colonies after independence. While France did pull out of its North African colonies, France retaimed a major presence in its sub-Saharan African colonies after indepoendence.
De Gaulle visited Montréal during the World Fair / Exposition Universelle also commemorating the centennial of the Canadian Confederation (1967). There was in Québec a strong movement promoting independance. Québec has a majority of French speakers and there was sunstantial support for for a kind of
separation from Canada, even indepence. At the time there was no important political party advocating separation. There were some extremists whicvh staged terrorist actions. A small left-wing separatist party emerged, "Rassemblement pour l'Indépendance Nationale" (RIN) . When De Gaulle came to Québec (July 1967), he was warmly received along the road from Québec City to Montréal (le chemin du Roy). On the balcony of the Montréal City Hall, he was impressed by the crowd shouting "VIVE LE QUEBEC LIBRE". So he responded with what seemed to be heresy in Canada He shouted "VIVE LE QUEBEC LIBRE" He endorsed the proclamation of an independant state in North America. From that time, Indepoendance is a recurrent theme in any election in Québec. There have been two referendums on tnhe question of Québec independence. The
first in 1980 was defeated by 60 percent against and 40 percent for independance. A second referendum in 1995 was near to be a success for "separatists" The "No's" won by just a few votes. A Canadian reader writes, "De Gaulle helped the independance of Québec but Quebequers were always suspicious with French people. Even if we speak French, we are not French. We are something very different from Canadians, French, English or Americans. We are a distinct people."
De Gaulle was not a firm ally during the Cold War. He sought to establish a destinct relationship with the Soviet Union. He was less willing to raise the issues of human rights that were raised by the Americans. He was more willing to accept the Soviet Union and attempt to reach agreements with the Soviet Union that were economically beneficial to France. Soviet Primier Khruchev visited Paris in 1960 and signed several economic agreements. More economic agreements were signed in 1964. President de Gaulle visited the Soviet Union in 1966. Not only were these arangements economically beneficial, but De Gaulle sought political benefits. The French Communists were less anle to criticise him as he was cooperating with the Soviets. Quite frankly I do not fully understand De Gaulle's policy. As best I understand it, De Gaulle felt France benefitted by not being fully in the Ameruican camp. Undoubtedly his experience during World War II where Roosevelt and Churchill largely controlled Free French opertations played a factor in creating his workld view. Hopefully our French readers can describe De Gaulle's policies toward the Soviet Union in more detail.
France and China in 1963 agree to a rapprochement, creating a third international force in an effort to prevent the "bipolarisatioin" of the globe.
France during the presidency of General de Gaulle (1958-69) was very prosperous.
The period wa called " les trente glorieuses ". The French felt secure at home. A great deal of money was spent on the military. It was during this period , that the plane Concorde with the colaboration of England was built. The bigest and most modern ship of the world " le France " was built.
The Paris student riots of 1968 played a major in ending the presidency of General de Gaulle. The May 1968 Paris student riots had a fundamental impact on French and Wider European society. A part of the impact was on fashion. Just as the War in Viet
Nam was having a major imact on American society. The Paris Student Riots are now seen as a major watershead event in France. As Charles Dickens put it about an earlier French Revolution, "They were the best of times, they were the worst of times. Surely the virtual open warfare in the strrets of Paris during those May days
shattered the old order in France more surely than any popular uprising since the Great revolution of 1789. Students and police clashed around burning cars and barricades. Half the French work force struck in solidarity-freezing the gears of a society which at the time was enjoying record prosperity. As a result, the mighty
Charles de Gaulle fell from what had seemed a presidency for life. Other popular movements were underway that Spring. The U.S. anti-War movement, the Prague Spring, and violence on campuses from Japan to Italy to Mexico. A new world order seemed at hand. The events are relatively unrecognized in America as we were in the grips of our own national upheaval.
Successive French governments have continued de Gaulle's independent forign policy.
President Pompidon visited the Soviet Union in 1970. Breshnev visited France in 1971. [? 1973 importante economic science and technic reinforcement.] Brejnev and President Pompidou meet again in 1974. President Giscard d'Estaing vists the Soviet Union in 1975 and important bcontracts are signed. The Soviets by 1982 are the leading supplier of gas to France.
The collapse of the Soviet threat has resulted in major shifts in the European-American relationship. France has played a leading role in promoting a new European relationship with America. There are of course significant differences within Europe on america. Many of the European nations that were once Communist satellites tend to view America in more positive terms. One of the major issues between America and Europe is the use of militay force.
We have attempted to assess French foreign polivies during the 21st centuries. We understand that France is persuing a policy of "multipolsrity". This certainly a reasonable and defensable world view. We understand there is a substantial difference of opinion between America and Europe on a range of issues. We have discussed these on the HBC page on America and Europe. There appears to be more, however, involved in statements about America made by President Chirac. We understand that political motivations may be involved. Chirac may be triangulating. As a center-right politican, by attacking America, he defuses attacks by the French left. One cpomment by President Chirac in particular struck me. He embarassed Primeminister Blair by suggesting publically that the split with America would not easily be repaired because "our American friends" do not "pay back favors". This appears to be the modern version of "perfidious albion".) Now the issues between American and Europe are real issues and I would be the last to suggest that eitherside of the Atlantic has a monopoly on truth or virtue. I do wonder how a French President can view the 20th century and say that America does not pay back favors.
Asselain, Jean-Charles. Histoire économique de la France du XVIIIe siècle à nos jours.
Judt, Tony. Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 (Penguin Press, 2005), 878p.
Mouré, Kenneth. "Food rationing and the black market in France (1940–1944)," French History (2010) Vol. 24, No. 2.
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