The art of inventing intricate knots is an inherent part of our human
brain. Creating lace and beauty by
a simple process of crossing and looping fibers gives the
lacemaker a feeling of reward and satisfaction. Many
lacemakers admit experiencing a state of spiritual well-being
during lace work. Part of the human experience of the maker
becomes embedded in the lace. Lace made centuries ago
still retains this magic, which captivates the lace collector and
energizes those who touch it.
Lace is an ornamental fabric consisting of decorative
openwork of threads that have been twisted, looped and
intertwined to form patterns. As such it
differs from other lacelike fabrics that are often called "lace" in a more general definition, like: gauze (an open-textured woven fabric), net and
macrame (knotted openwork), chrochet and knitted openwerk (formed by looping a single thread into a fabric by means of a chrochet hook or long
knitting needles), tatting (knotted fabric made with a tatting shuttle). Closer to this definition of lace are: filet, buratto and tambour work (embroidery on
a net ground), and drawnwork and cutwork (some threads or sections are removed from the fabric and the open areas embroidered or filled with lace-making stitches).
Lace can be made by needles (needle lace) or on a pillow using bobbins (bobbin lace) or by a combination of these two basic techniques (for example Brussels Lace). New methods for lacemaking are constantly developed by combining several techniques. During the last part of the 19th century machine-made lace was developed and became very popular begin 1900.
Needlepoint lace developed from techniques used in Italian cutwork and drawnwork. Bobbin lace is derived from the twisting techniques used in decoration of the fringe ends of woven fabric in Flandres (hence the name "kant" meaning "the border or the edge" in Flemish or Dutch).
Making lace by hand is as old as human fingers. Graceful interlacing lines are found in most cultures. The Celts used such designs on their funereal stones. Chinese priest cord knots date back several thousand years. Arabic geometric patterns are very intricate, elaborate and artful interlacings. Fishermen of all time have relied on their knowledge of rope-making
and knotting to catch fish and to master the winds, mountain climbers use knots for the preservation of life and limb. The knowledge and understanding of knots form a very basic human science. The beauty of knots has been recognized by fiber artists of every culture and generation. Lacemaking aims to honor this tradition in its purest form.
Museums are filled with the finest examples of handmade lace in Europe. Modern artists also use lace techniques to create unique works of art. LMi highlights lace artists and museum exhibitions on a regular basis.
Figure 5.--This little American boy wears a large lace collar and fancy satin dress. The photograph was probably taken in the 1890s.
Of many Arts, one surpasses all. For the maiden seated at her work flashes the smooth balls and thousand threads into the circle, ... and from this, her amusement, makes as much profit as a man earns by the sweat of his brow, and no maiden ever complains, at even, of the length of the day. The issue is a fine web, which feeds the pride of the whole globe; which surrounds with its fine border cloaks and tuckers, and shows grandly round the throats and hands of Kings.
The above statement was made about 350 years ago by
the Flemish Master of oil painting, yet it still reflects perfectly what
lacemaking is all about. It is a work of art, fun to make, and something to be
proud of. It is also a unique way for a "maiden" to make an honest living,
and as such, lacemaking as an industry on a larger scale is unprecedented
and unique in women's history.
I have always been intrigued by the interaction between economical
circumstances and social life. Lacemaking is a premier example of an
industry that was influenced by the social and political life between 1500's
and 1920's in Flanders (since 1830 covering the northern half of Belgium)
Italy, Holland, France, Spain, and England.
The constant drive to make clothing more attractive is responsible for the
creation of the finest and most costly trimming we now call classic lace.
Those first steps were taken in the land of the Pharaohs, who used flax cloth
decorated with colored threads and worked them in geometric designs. The
ancient Greeks and Romans would ornament their togas with colors or gold.
A new garment needed no ornament about the immediate edge, but as it
became worn and frayed, the threads had to be twisted and stitched
together. Lace is derived from the twisting techniques used in decoration of
the fringe ends of woven fabric. In Flanders, lace is called "kant" meaning
border or edge. The birthplaces of lacemaking are generally recognized as
Flanders and Italy.
From the twelfth century onward, Flanders consisted of a group of
city-states in which most aspects of daily life were safely structured. The
cities were organized by groups of artisans who shared the same occupation.
These powerful organizations were called "Guilds" and their representatives
made the rules. Cities like Bruges, Ghent, Antwerp and to a lesser extent
also Brussels, accumulated a lot of wealth by growing flax, turning it into
linen thread and weaving the most precious and finest material for clothing
at that time. The more wealthy they became the more the surrounding states
wanted to conquer and annex those cities.
So it happened that Joan of Navarre visited Bruges in 1300 and jealously
questioned her husband the King of France, Philip IV, nicknamed The Fair
(1268-1314), how it was possible that all the women on the streets in
Flanders were better dressed than she was. Being a man of action, Philip
promptly sent his tax collectors to the cities, but the Flemish burgers chased
them away. In anger for his wounded pride, he sent over an army consisting
mainly of the nobles of France under the command of Robert of Artois,
Joan’s uncle, to teach those Flemish peasants a lesson.
Seal of Philip IV
The French army was defeated on July 11th,
1302 in the infamous "Battle of the Golden Spurs" - today this date still marks the national holiday of the Federal State of Flanders. The huge expenditure of this defeat prompted Philip IV to look for other ways to refill his money chests. He started by
confiscating the assets of the moneylenders.
Since he personally owed a lot of money to
the Order of the Knights-Templars, his
banker, he declared them heretics, imprisoned
and burned them while confiscating their property.
The third action he took had a direct impact on our
subject matter: he also confiscated the assets of the
Lombards, Italian bankers. This action was responsible
for bringing the leading families in Flanders and Italy
At that time, the trade routes over land were
not very safe, certainly not in France. An intense sea-trade
relationship with the great Italian city-states of Genoa, Venice
and Florence via the Flemish sea ports of Bruges and later Antwerp developed. The Italian cities were also very wealthy from trading in the Mediterranean, the Black Sea and beyond. They
exchanged jewels, silver and gold for
silks and spices like pepper and ginger. At that time, the trade
routes over land were not very safe, certainly not in France. An
intense sea-trade relationship with the great Italian city-states of
Genoa, Florence and Venice developed via the Flemish
seaports of Bruges and later Antwerp. The Italian cities
were also very wealthy from trading in the
Mediterranean, the Black Sea and beyond. They
exchanged jewels, silver and gold for silks and spices like
pepper and ginger. Marco Polo's father Nicolo, and his
uncle, Matteo, traveled to China and lived at the court of
the Great Kublai Khan. Later, Marco Polo became a
diplomat in the service of the Khan. The Italians could
afford to wear the expensive Flemish linen cloth. Against
this backdrop, it is understandable that a strong demand
developed for laces as clothing embellishments and later
on also for the fabric of lace itself. The demand was
promptly filled in these two important geographic
Around 1305, it is said to have rained heavily and
constantly. Some chronicles talk about rain lasting for
more than a year - with tragic implications. Rats could no
longer live and eat outside and moved into the human
dwellings. Fleas carrying Black Death disease started
living on the rats and from these rats it crossed over onto
the human population. This epidemic plague killed almost
50% of the inhabitants of Europe during the fourteenth
and fifteenth centuries. As a result, a lot of people, who
could afford to do so, went away to the south —mainly
Italy— to escape the moist weather and The Plague.
Many of the successful patrons established thriving
business relationships and brought about a profound
cultural exchange between Italy and Flanders. Dutch
artists reflected in their paintings the idyllic Italian
landscapes. The Church became wealthier by collecting
large sums to compensate for sins and to avoid the
plague. The Church became the foremost and principal
customer and user of lace during the centuries to follow.
Returning to the origins of lace: Italian lacemakers used a
single thread technique with help of the needle, whereas
in Flanders, the threads were wound on wooden shuttles
or bobbins which were used altogether on a pillow to
twist & cross multiple threads and create the desired
effect on a loom of pins. This is bobbin lace and was
initially known as pinwork.
The close economical relationship between these two
areas was also reflected by the fact that the lace, created
by these two completely different techniques, is
From 1480 to 1590 was the Geometric or Gothic period,
without brides; when the lace became heavier, between
1590 to 1630, we see more floral motifs and the various
filling stitches were called modes.
Between 1630 to 1670 the motifs developed constantly
and incorporated not only floral designs but also heads,
figures, scenes and birds on a net or meshed background.
From 1720 to 1780, little bouquets, sprigs, sprays,
flowers, leaves, buds and dots were freely scattered over
grounds, creating an exquisite beauty of ornament that
reached such perfection that it could not be improved on.
Due to these political and economic ties between Italy and Flanders, it is clear that the birth and development of lacemaking can not be pinpointed to one specific location. Rather, its creation may be attributed to the union of two cultures.
The craft of making lace was guarded jeaously by lace makers for centuries. After the mid-19th century, machinery was perfected that could produce high quality lace. The machine-made product by the 1880s had been perfected that it could even fool experts. Fashion magazines published guidelineson how to tell the dfference between "real" lace and machine-made immitation. The important French fashion magazine, La Mode Illustree, ran a series of such articles.[La Mode Illustree, 1900] As a result, dress which once could only have modest lace trim could be draped in lace. Yards of factory-manufactured lace and other materials such as braid and broderie anglaise were being used to trim dresses. This excess of decoration was attached by enthusiastic seamstresses equipped with inexpensive paper patterns and the labor saving sewing machines. They did not stop at women's dresses, but exended their creations to clothing for boys and girls as well.
Lauriks, Wim J. "The Birthplace of Lace," LACE Magazine international Spring 1999, No. 49.
Pfannschmidt, Ernst-Erik. Twentieh-Century Lace (Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 19750, 216p. Contents include Lace-making new & old; rebirth of hand-made lace in Italy; development in Belgium, Lace in England, in Germany, in Eastern Europe; threads used in lace-making, emergence of bobbin-lace, technique of bobbin lace, needlemade lace, tulle
lace, classification of contemporary lace, etc.
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