Scotland was joined in a personal union in the person of King James I. One-year old James was crowned King James VI of Scotland 5-days after his mothers abdication. His mother's fierce adversary, famed Scottish Reformation leader John Knox, preached the sermon at his coronation celebration. James in 1603 following Elizabeth's death became the first Stuart king of England. In a great irony of history, Elizabeth who had ordered albeit reluctantly Mary's Stuart's execution, was replaced by her son James. He referred to himself as "king of Great Britain." He believed strongly in royal absolutism. The principle of royal absolutism was a firmly establish docrine in France and other European countries. James was prepared to support this principle in the face of English tradiions of limited royal authority. This was a Stuart tradition that was eventually to cost his son's head and a grandson's crown. James'conflicts with a Parliament insistent on its perogatives set in motion the English Civil War in which Parlimentary forces rebelled against his son Charles I.
James' father was Lord Darnley. He was murdered in 1567. James was not yet 1 year old.
James mother, Mary Queen of Scots. She was raised in France. She ascended to the Scottish throne in 1562 while still in France. She was queen consort of France (1559-60). On the death of her husband she returned to Scotland. Her unwise marital and political actions provoked rebellion among the Scottish nobles. She was forced to abdicate in favor of her son James in 1567. James thus became King James VI of Scotland at only 1 year of age. Mary escaped her Scottish wardens, but was imprisoned in England by her cousin Queen Elizabeth I. She was kept in confinement by Elizabeth for 19 years. Mary as a Catholic and claim the the English throne was a threat to Elizabeth. Elizabeth in 1587 ordered her execution for participating in a Catholic plot to assassinate her.
James Charles Stuart was born on June 19, 1566 at Edinburg Castle in Scotland.
One-year old James was crowned King James VI of Scotland 5-days after his mothers abdication. His mother's fierce adversary, famed Scottish Reformation leader John Knox, preached the sermon at his coronation celebration.
James was not raised by his parents. He was raised by a series of tutors.
The most influential was George Buchanan, a staunch Calvinist minister. Over the years we have noted many tutors to European thrones. He was perhaps the most effective of all the many tutors. He was an older began when he began tutoring young James--64 years old. Buchanan's was a strict and very effective teacher. James as a result was one of the most learned and intellectually curious men ever to sit on an European throne.
James' studies were very demanding. He began his Greek assignments even before breakfast. After breakfast James studied Latin, history, composition, arithmetic cosmography, dialectics, rhetoric theology, which was an especially important subject in the 16th centurt and Europe was racked by religious disscenion and war. James was anable student and spoke fluent Greek, Latin, French, English, and Scots and was competent in Italian and Spanish as well. King James once stated that he was able to speak Latin before he could speak his native Scots. As an adult, because of his linguistic tudies, King James normally did not require a translator when conducting diplomatic negotiations with other monarchs. In fact few translators were more competent than the King himself. We are not sure what James thought of his demanding tutor. Some boys develop close relatiinships with their tutors, this does not seem to be the case of James and Buchanan.
King James married Princess Anne (Oldenburg) of Denmark. She was the second daughter of King Frederick II of Denmark and Norway. Princess Anne was born in 1574 at Skanderborg, Castle. She died in 1619 at Hampton Court Palace.
King James married Princess Anne in 1589, first by proxy and then in person. He was a young man about 23 years old. She was only about 15 years old.
James and Anne had nine children, most did not survive infancy. The three important surviving children were Henry Frederick, Elizabeth, and Charles.
Henry Frederick as the elest son became the Prince of Wales. He was born in 1594 at Stirling Castle before his father became king.. His other titles included Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Lord of the Isles, Duke of Cornwall, and Earl of Chester. He was handsome, athletic, chivalrous, candid, and a hater of flattery--the idol of the nation and one of the most gifted members of the Stuart dynasty. He died in 1612 of typhoid fever at St. James Palace in England. Many funeral elegies by such literary giants as John Donne,
George Chapman, John Webster and Henry King were written to mourn his early
James and Anne has a stillborn child in July 1595.
Elizabeth was born in 1596 at Dunfermline. We do not know a great deal about here. There is a wonderful portait by Robert Peake the Elder, done about 1606. Dhe would have been 10-11 years old. We know that she was very close to her older brother. the Prince of Wales Henry Frederick. He took a great interest in her marriage plans. In fact his last words on his death bed was to ask about her. I', less sure about her relationship to Charles. Elizabeth married Frederick V, Elector of Palatine of the Rhine, King of Bohemia 1619-1620. Had 13 children. was known as the "The Winter Queen", Queen of Bohemia. She died in 1662 at Leicester House, London, England.
Margaret was born in 1598 and died as a very young child in 1600 at Dalkeith Palace, Linlithgow.
Charles Stewart was born in 1600 at Dunfermline, Scotland. He acceded to English throne upon death of his father in 1625. His believe that he was an absolute monarch and ruled by divine right. His struggles with the English Parliament and Scottish rebels resulted in the English Civil War in which he was defeated by Parlimentary forces commanded by Oliver Cromwell. Charles was executed in 1649 at Whitehall Pallace in London. Two children were to succeed him as king, Charles II and James II.
Robert Bruce was born in 1602 at Dunfermline, but lived only a few months. His title was Duke of Kintyre.
A son was born in May 1603 at Stirling Castle, but did not survive.
TMary was born in 1605 at Greenwich Palace. She died in 1607 at Stanwell Park, Middlesex.
Sophia was born in 1606, but lived only 1 day.
James in 1625 became the first Stuart king of England. He referred to himself as "king of Great Britain." He believed strongly in royal absolutism. The principle of royal absolutism was a firmly establish docrine in France and other European countries. James was prepared to support this principle in the face of English tradiions of limited royal authority. This was a Stuart tradition that was eventually to cost his son's head and a grandson's crown. James'conflicts with a Parliament insistent on its perogatives set in motion the English Civil War in which Parlimentary forces rebelled against his son Charles I.
The original King James version of the Bible was published in 1611. It was the most beautifully written version ever published. Although more revent versions have benefited from modern scholarship, none can match the poetic beauty of the King James version. The Apocrypha were included in the 1611 King James Bible. They are coomonly omited in many Protestant Bibles
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