Louis assended the throne of France at age 5 when his brother Philippe was 3. Philippe, although only about 3 or 4 in this painting, reportedly wore dresses, was kept in the company of woman and girls and was treated as a little girl by his mother, Anne, for many years. She even referred to him as 'her little girl'. This was said to have been done at the instigation of Mazarin who feared Philippe would become a threat to Louie as Louis' father's bother had become to him.
Philippe was called the Duc D'Anjou (until 1660). When addressing him he was referred to as Monnsieur, first of the last Bourbon dynasty of dukes of Orléans. King Louis refused to allow Philippe to exercise any political influence. He officially tolerated him ay court, formaly behaving in a respectful manner, but behind the scenes undermining any real prestige.
Philippe was also the duc d'Orleans and as such founded the Orleans Line of the Bourbon dynasty. They were to become Italian (Sicily and Naples) and Spanish kings. The house of Orléans, had the title of first princes of the blood in France. The only male descendant to survive the Revolution was Louis-Philippe (1773-1850), who became King of the French after the revolution of 1830, replacing Charles X. Louis-Philippe was himself overthrown in the Revolution of 1848. Louis-Philippe had several sons.
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