Louis XIII was the eldest son of Henry IV and Marie de Médicis. He was born at Fontainebleau in 1601. Louis was raised under the harsh regime of his governess, Madame de Montglat, and from 1609. of his governor, the Marquis de Souvré. Louis reportedly desposed his father's illegitimate children with whom he shared the royal nursery. One of those brothers, Gaston Duke d'Orleans later attempted to gain the crown. Their father was murdered in 1610 and his mother became regent. Louis was a shy youth and became attached in Charles d'Albert, the royal falconer who he was to make Duke de Luynes. Louis' mother acting as regent forced the boy to mary Anne of Austria--the daughter of Philip III of Spain. France's great nobles objected. Louis who was only 14 was required to consumate the marriage, an experience which reportedly affected him throughout his life. Louis ended the regency in 1617 when he rebelled against his mother and her Italian favorite who , with the aid of d'Albert he had killed. He had his mother imprisoned. Even so she led consiracies against her son. Louis made Richelieu his chief minister, but regarded him at first as his mother's protégé. They suceeded in checking Habsburg power in Europe and gaining control over the nobillity. Although he came to regard his Habsburg wife as unloyal, the two after years without children produced the future Louis XIV in 1638.
Louis XIII was the eldest son of King Henry IV and Queen Marie de Médicis.
Louis was born at Fontainebleau in 1601. Louis was raised under the harsh regime of his governess, Madame de Montglat, and from 1609. of his governor, the Marquis de Souvré. Louis reportedly desposed his father's illegitimate children with whom he shared the royal nursery. One of those brothers, Gaston Duke d'Orleans later attempted to gain the crown. Louis was a rather
weak child who grew up with erotic attachments to male favorites or "mignons". He became attached to Charles d'Albert, the royal falconer who he was to make Duke de Luynes.
We have little information about Louis' boyhood clothing. Presumably he wore dresses as a small child. Once breeched he would have been dressed essentially as an adult because destinctive children's clothing did not exist at the time. Here we see a full-length portrait of Louis
as a boy of about 12. It would have been done about 1613 when the boy was already king. The portrait is probably by the Flemish painter, Frans Pourbus, the Younger, whom Louis' mother patronized. Today, it hangs in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. Boys in the 17th century dressed exactly as adult men did. Here Louis wears the costume of a nobleman or French courtier. Notice the elaborate lace ruff, the brocade tight-fitting doublet with the sash of a royal order across his chest, the trunk hose (the wide flaring bloomer-like trousers that were often stuffed to make them stand out), the long silk stockings, and the satin shoes with rosettes. Louis of course wears a sword suspended from his waist by an embroidered strap.
Louis' father King Henry IV was murdered in 1610 and Louis succeeded him as a child. He was only 8 years old so his mother became regent. She was a very domineering mother, a Hapsburg. Louis ended the regency in 1617 when he rebelled against his mother and had her Italian favorite Concini killed with the aid of d'Albert. He had his mother imprisoned and then exiled. She led conspiracies against her son.
Louis' mother acting as regent forced the boy to mary Anne of Austria (1615). Anne of Austria was the queen consort of King Louis XIII of France (1610–43) and became one of the most important French queens. Her father was Habsburg King Philip III (1578- ) of Spain. Her mother was Habsburg Princess Margaret of Austria (1584- ). The marriage to Louis was a political marriage. She was a Hapsburg--the daughter of Philip III of Spain. The Bourbons and Hapsburgs at the time were the tweo great royal families of Europe and tus a marriag of some importance. France's great nobles objected. Louis who was only 14 was required to consumatethe mairage, an experience which reportedly affected him throughout his life. King Louis XIII had severe doubts about Anne, but his premature death left her in control of France as regent for their son Louis (1643). Annewas a Hassburg princes, the eldest daughter of King Philip III of Spain and Margaret of Austria, Anne married the teenage Louis XIII (1615). Louis from the very beginning exhibited little interest in her. Anne's reputation was damaged as a result of the indiscression of te Englishman George Villiers, 1st duke of Buckingham (1625). Villiers openly flaunted his interest in Anne at court. Cardinal Richleau, Louis' chief minister (1624-42), was suspicious of Anne because of her sympathies with Spain. The Cardinal influenced Louis to resist Anne's efforts to acquire any real influence. A long running struggle developed between the two. Anne came to hate the Cardinal as a result. Anne unwisely took in Marie de Rohan-Montbazon, duchesse de Chevreuse to her hosehold. She also became close to the queen mother, Marie de Médicis. She attempted to convince Louis to dissmiss Cardinal Richelieu (the Day of Dupes, 1630). The animosity only increased when Richelieu he engineered a war with Spain and her brother King Philip IV (1635). Although queen of France, she remained sympathetic to Spanish because of family ties. Richelieu secretly ordered that she be closely followed. His spies gathered proof that during a visit to the nunnery at Val-de-Grâce where she secretly corresponded with her brother. The Cardinal proved to Louis that this was treason. Any action against the Queen, however, was awkward as she gave the King two sons--the dauphin Louis (1638) and Philippe (1640). Louis attempted to prevent Anne from becoming sole regent in case of death through codicils in his will. After his death (1643) , however, Anne suceeded in having the Parlement of Paris annul the will. With Louis' death and Anne's appointment as sole regent, the French nobels, many of whom disliked the queen, moved to regain the priviliges that Richelieu suceeded in cancelling during Louis XIII's reign. The Queen rejected the demands of the nobels. She was detrrmined that her son would inherit the full authority that Louis and Richeliuu had succeeded in ammassing. She replaced Richelieu with Cardinal Jules Mazarin, an Italian-born prelate. Mazarin was a close associate of Richelieu. Anne and Mazarin became very close. Some historians allege an intimate reltionship and a secret marriage. They were confronted with a rebellion by the nobility--the Fronde (1648-53). The nobels threatened the monarchy and forced Anne to dismiss Mazarin (1651). The Fronde was, hwever, not aunified effort, but in effect aseries of revolys. Mazarin coached the Queen well and she astutely played off factions of the nobiity. When the rebellion collapsed, Anne brought Mazarin back. Officially Anne's regency ended durng the Fronde (1651). Her son Louis XIV was proclaimed of age to reign. Louis was, however, still only a teenager and relied heavily on his mother and Mazarin. France did not make peace with Spain for several more years (1659). Louis married Anne's niece, Marie-Thérèse, the daughter of Philip IV (1660).
Although Louis XIII came to regard his Habsburg wife as disloyal, the two after years without children produced the future Louis XIV in 1638. This was only 5 years before King Louis XIII died, meaning his son like himself came to the throne at a very young age. A second soin Phillipe followed (1840). The two were raised together by their mother because Louis died unexpectly when both boys were quite young. I am not sure about their childhood relationship, but as adults the two were not particularly close.
Louis did not take a strong stand in governing France. He made Cardinal Richelieu his chief minister (1624). He first regarded him as his mother's protégé. Louis came to rely on Richlieu and his successor Mazarin. They were responsivle for major policies and dominated most of his reign. Together they suceeded in checking Habsburg power in Europe and gaining control over the nobillity. Louis with Richelieu's assistance also brutally crushed the Hugenots (the French Protestants). With this France became a thoroiughly Catholic country, but lost the energies and industriness of an important minority.
Louis is famous for having founded the Royal Academy. The philosopher Descartes and the playwright Corneille flourished during his reign.
Louis in 1635 he entered the bloody wars of religion known as the Thirty Years War which had broken out in Germany. The Thirty Years War was the most bloody and destructive war ever fought in Europe until the Napoleonic Wars of the early 19th century. It was not as the name suggests one single war lasting 30 years, but rather a series of related wars fought over that period. The War began in Germany (Holy Roman Empire) and gradually spread to much of the rest of Europe. It was actually a series of wars involving most European countries, but fought primarily in Germany. The war was exceedingly brutal, in part because of the religious passions of the Reformation. The struggle was between Catholic and Protestant princes aided by non-German coregilionalists. While initially a religious war, the fighting was complicated by dynastic rivalries and the desire of the Sweeds and French to curb the power of the German Holy Roman Empire dominated by the Hapsburgs. The War devestated Germany. It is believed that about 6 million civilians, mostly Germans, perished in the conflict. More Germans died in this war than in either World War I or II.
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