The British after World War I helped set up Emir Feisal as king of Iraq. He was the leader of the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire during the War. He was a member of the Sunni Hashimite family from Mecca. He was the first king of the new state of Iraq. This was the first independent state in what is now Iraq since the Islamic Caliphate. Feisal manage to obtained the Iraqi throne in part because of his close association T. E. Lawrence, the famed British officer who helped organize the Arab Revolt. The British drive the Ottomans out of Iraq at the end of the War and were granted a mandate by the League of Nations. The Iraqi monarchy was legitimized by a plebiscite (1921). The
British Mandate ended (1932). The Iraqi Army moved toward the NAZIs during World War II and the British reoccupied the country (1941). It was the major source of oil for the British Royal Navy and 8th Army in the Werstern Desert
Feisal I proved to be a moderate, moderizing ruler. His gandson son, Feisal II, was overthrown and brutally murdered in a military coup (1958). This was the first step in Saddam Husein's rise to power.
The Ottoman Empire sides with Germany and the Central Powers in Wotld War I. Their primary focus was on Russia to the North. The War, however, brought them into conflict with the British and resulted in the loss of their Arab provinces, including Iraq. Modern Iraq was created when the British at the end of the World War seized what is now Iraq from the collapsing Ottomon Empire. The British mandate for Iraq was established at the 1919 Paris Peace Talks. An Arab insurection in 1920 convinced the British to permit the establishment of a monarchy under Emir Feisal (1921). He was the leader of the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire during the War. He was a member of the Sunni Hashimite family from Mecca. This was the first Iraqi state in what is now Iraq since the Islamic Caliphate. Feisal managed to obtained the Iraqi throne in part because of his close association T. E. Lawrence, the famed British officer who helped organized the Arab Revolt. The Britis were granted a mandate by the League of Nations. The Iraqi monarchy was legitimized by a plebiscite (1921). The British retained control for several years as a Protectorate (1920-32). Iraq was admitted to the League of Nations as an independent country (1932). When Iraqi leaders began to show signs of siding with the NAZIs during World War II, the British seized the country (1941). Iraq was the major source of oil for the British Royal Navy and 8th Army in the Western Desert. A pipelin ran from Iraq to Haifa in British-controled Palestine. Feisal's grandson Fisal II proved to be a moderate, moderizing ruler. The Hashimite monarchy was overthrown in 1958 in a bloody military coup. The country became a republic which persued an alliance with the Soviet Union. The Bath Party seized power in 1968. Saddam was important in the securrity service of the Bath Party. By 1979 he became the Bath Party Chairman and had achieved total control. One year later he ordered the invasion of Iran.
There were three Hashimite monarchs that ruled Iraq in the 20th century after the Arab Revolt and World War I. It was Emir Feisal's relation with the Arab Revolt and T.E. Lawrence tht led to the foundation of the Hashimite Monarchy. The Hashimite power base was originall Mecca and Arabia, but they were expelled by the Saudis after World War I. Emir Feisal became Feisal I. His son, Ghazi I, after replacing his father was killed in a racing accident. This ledt Ghazi's son Feiusal II king at only 4 years of age. He assumed power after World War II ad gong ti school in England (1953). The Hashemite Dynasty eded with a blood bath at the ar-Rihāb Palace durug a coup stage by the Free Officers Movemnent whjich declared a Republic.
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