Figure 1.--The young Louis XV is seen here about 1712-13 with his great garndfather King Louis XIV. Behind the King is Philippe d'Orléans, son of the King's brother who would become the Régent until his death in 1723. At right is the King of Spain, Philippe V, grand son of Louis XIV. During all his life, Louis XIV dreamt of unifying the crown of Spain and of France which lead to "War of the Spanish Succession". At left is Mme. de Ventadour, who cared for Louis XV, greatgrandson of Louis XIV.
King Philip V of Spain was born in 1638. He became the first Bourbon king of Spain in 1700. He was King Louis XIV of France's granson. Before rising to the Spanish throne he was the Duke of Anjou. Charles II of Spain chose Philip as his successor and setting off the war of the Spanish Succession.
Philip's father was the Dauphin Louis (1661- ), son of Loui XIV. His mother was Princes Mary Anne Christine of Bavaria (1660- ).
King Philip V of Spain was born in 1638.
Philip became the first Bourbon king of Spain in 1700. He was King Louis XIV of France's granson. Before rising to the Spanish throne he was the Duke of Anjou. Charles II of Spain chose Philip as his successor.
King Louis XIV during his reign had sought to expand French power and territory through a seies of costly wars. He succeeded in expanding France to the Rhine by acquiring Alsace, but had been checked by Philip's the English and Dutch and other powers. Here the Duke of Marlborough and William of Orange played major roles. Now nearing the end of his reign, Louis saw the opportunity to make amajor gain. He had long dreamed of uniting the Spanih and French crowns. Acquiring the Spanish crown for the Bourbon would have a major impact on the European power ballance. King Louis XIV thus accepted the offer Spanish throne for his Philip. This precipitated the war of the Spanish Succession (1701-14).
The War of the Spanish Succession was the first war of the 18th century, resulting from Louis XIV's desire to gain control over Spain. It was fought in Europe from 1702-14. The War was primarily fought on land and was the first major engagement of English forces on the European continent beyond French coastal areas. It was the last of the wars launched by Louis XIV in his drive to expand French power and territory. Two great military leaders emerged, the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugène who secured major victories over the French. The War eventually statemated and the English withdrew. The Treaty of Utrech (1713) left the crown in Bourbon hands, but with the stipulation that the French and Spanish crowns never be unified. England gained important territories including Gibralter and areas of Canada. Spain lost many important territories, including the Spanish Netherlands, Sardinia, Milan, and Naples to Austria and Sicily to Savoy. Philip V retained the Spanish crown, but with the understanding that the Bourbons would never combine the two crowns. The War also had domestic repercussions in Spain. Several regions of Spain sided with Archduke Charles (later Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI). After te War, Philip deprived Catalonia, Aragón, and Valencia of the autonomous privileges that they had enjoyed.
Philip was a weak man and extremely lazy. Despite having enspired a huge war, he devoted little effort to the duties of kingship. He apparently was dominated by the women in his life.
Philip in 1701 married Princes Mary Louise (Gabrielle) de Savoie. They had four children: King Louis I (1707- ), Philipp (1709- ), Felipe Pedro Gabriel (1712- ), and , Ferdinand VI (1713- ). The princesse des Ursins, lady in waiting to Queen Mary Louise, appears to have dominated his court.
Philip in 1714 married Isabella Elizabeth Farnese. Philip allowed her to dominate policie of state. She relied heavily on her husband's chief minister, Cardinal Alberoni. The Queen and Alberoni attempted to regain contol of Spain's Italian territories which had been lost in the War of the Spanish Succession. The Quadruple Alliance of 1718 forced Spain had to end its efforts in 1720. Philip and Isabella had seven children: Charles III (1716- ), Franz (1717- ), Maria Anne (1718- ), Duke Philip of Parma (1720- ), Marie Therese (1726- ), Cardinal Louis (1727- ), and Mary (1729- ).
Philip in 1724 abdicated the throne to his eldest son, Louis I. In an unexpcted turn of events, he resumed the throne when Louis died of smallpox.
As a result of the War of the Polish Succession, Naples and Sicily was seeded by Austria to Philip's son Don Carlos who became Charles III.
Philip's son Phillip received Parma and Piacenza.
Philip was succeeded by his son Ferdinand VI.
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