Italian School Uniform: Eras


Figure 1.--This "Giovinezza in Marcia" school notebook, was one of the notebook Italian children used during the Fascist era. This was the notebook for French. It was issued in 1935 ans apparently used in 1936. Note that a stamp had to be bought for it. The notebooks had patriotic Fascist illustrations and quotations from Mussolini on the front and back. The boy pictured wears his Bailial uniform.

There are several different eras of Italian education. Until the 1860s, Italy was divided into several different independent states, including areas of northern Italy administered by the Austrians. Italy was unified in the 1860s under a monarchy and parlimentary democrcy. The democratic era ended in 1922-25 with the rise of Mussolini and his fascists. The Fascists were overthrown in 1943, but the NAZIs occupied much of Italy and established a Fascist state in northern Italy under Mussolini as a puppet figurhead. The German surrendeded in April 1945. The king abdicated in 1946 after a refornandum showed that opinion on the monarchy was divided. As a result, a new Italian Republic was created. The chool system in Italy was strongly affected by thes political developments.

Divided Italy

There are several different eras of Italian education. Until the 1860s, Italy was divided into several different independent states, including areas of northern Italy administered by the Austrians.

Unified Italy: Monarchy and Parliamentary Democracy (1860-1925)

Italy was unified in the 1860s under a monarchy and parlimentary democrcy.

Fascist Italy (1925-45)

The democratic era ended in 1922-25 with the rise of Mussolini and his fascists. Mussolini was appointd premier in 1922 and he estblished a dictatorship in 1925. Italy was the first Fascist government in Europe. The Fascists were overthrown in 1943, but the NAZIs occupied much of Italy and established a Fascist state in northern Italy under Mussolini as a puppet figurhead. The Fascists seized control of Italian education. Children wee subject to Fascist propaganda in every phse of their studies. Unlike Germany, however, the Fascist did not manage to completely control the country's education system. Children were exposed to Fascist symbols and taught to venerate Mussolini. The Church continued to be involved in the state schools and to operate many Catholic schools.

Republic (1946- )

The German surrendeded in April 1945. The king abdicated in 1946 after a refornandum showed that opinion on the monarchy was divided. As a result, a new Italian Republic was created. The chool system in Italy was strongly affected by thes political developments.






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Created: Ocober 3, 2003
Last updated: Ocober 3, 2003