The first Stuart king of England was James VI of Scotland who became James I of England. His son Chales I lost the English Civil War
to Oliver Cromwell and was executed. Charles II (1630-85) was the second, but eldest surviving son of Charles I. His father,
Charles I, had been executed by Cromwell, but he and his younger brother James had been spirited away to France for saftey.
The throne was restored to Charles in 1660 after the death of Cromwell. Charles pursued a moderate policy offering amnesty
to all but the regecides who had signed the orders for his father's execution. James II (1633-1701) was the second surviving
son of Charles I. His father, Charles I, had been executed by Cromwell, bit he and his elder brother Charles had been spirited
away to France for saftey. James inherited the throne from his elder brother, Charles II, in 1685. His brother had maintained a
careful policy aimed at passifying Parliament. James ignored his brother's advise and his militant Catholcism cost him the throne
Mary II (married to William III) and Anne were the last Stewart monarchs.
James Charles Stuart was born on June 19, 1566 at Edinburg Castle in Scotland.
He was one of the best prepared and educated prince in the history of Britain. He was taken from his mother as an inflant and educated by her Protestant enemies which she languished in confinment, controlled and eventually executed by Queen Elizabeth I. One-year old James was crowned King James VI of Scotland 5-days after his mothers abdication. His mother's fierce adversary, famed Scottish Reformation leader John Knox, preached the sermon at his coronation celebration. He was subjected to a series of demanding tutors and by the time he became king was fluent in several languages and one of the most educated men in the kingdom. James in 1625 became the first Stuart king of England. He referred to himself as "king of Great Britain." He believed strongly in royal absolutism. The principle of
royal absolutism was a firmly establish docrine in France and other European countries. James was prepared to support this principle in the face of English tradiions
of limited royal authority. This was a Stuart tradition that was eventually to cost his son's head and a grandson's crown. James'conflicts with a Parliament insistent on
its perogatives set in motion the English Civil War in which Parlimentary forces rebelled against his son Charles I. The beautiful King James version of the Bible was a project that he ordered and oversaw.
King James married Princess Anne (Oldenburg) of Denmark. She was the second daughter of King Frederick II of Denmark and Norway.
Charles I was born in 1600. He was the second of James I, the first Stewart king. His mother was Anne of Denmark, one of many marriages between the English and Danish royal family. He was a weak, sickly child, but became a competent horseman. His weak constitution hid a strong, if inflexible character. His father had a difficult time finding a bride for Charles. Finally a marriage was arranged with Henrietta Maria, the 15-year old daughter of Henry IV of France. The marriage was not an initual success, but the two gradually became close. They were to produce four sons and five daughters, four of whom were to inherit the crown he lost: Charles II, James II, Mary II, and Anne I. Charles became king at the youthful age of 25. Unlike the Tudors before them and the Hanovarians who followed them, the Stewarts seem unable to adjust to changing times and remained wed to the idea of divine right monarchy and royal absolutism in a country where Parlament had become an important force. Charles was even less adept than his father in handling Parliament. The resylt was a long, destructive Civil War with Cromwell's Roundheads. Charles even after losing the Civil War , conspired with foreign powers. He was executed for treason in 1649. Not the first king to be deposed, but the only one to be executed (1649).
Charles was the second, but eldest surviving son of Charles I. His father, Charles I, had been executed by Cromwell, bit he and his younger brother James had been spirited away to France for saftey. The throne was restored to Charles in 1660 after the death of Cromwell. Charles pursued a moderate policy offering amnesty to all but the regecides who had signed the orders for his father's execution.
James II was the second surviving son of Charles I. His father, Charles I, had been executed by Cromwell, bit he and his elder brother Charles had been spirited away to France for saftey. James inherited the throne from his elder brother, Charles II, in 1685. His brother had maintained a careful policy aimed at passifying Parliament. James ignored his brother's advise and his militant Catholcism cost him the throne.
Mary Stuart was the daughter of James II and Anne Hyde. She was born in 1662 in exile during Cromwell's Protecorate. Her uncle Charles II insisted she marry William of Orange to help sunstantiate an alliance with the Dutch who were also opposing Louis XIV's expanonist policies. Maty and William did not produce any heirs. Mary died of smallpox in London during 1694.
William of Orange was born in ???? during 1650. His father was William, Prince of Orange. His mother was Mary Stuart (daughter of Charles I). He married Mary Stuart who was the daughter of James II, a first cousin. Both Wiliam and Mary were grandchildren of King Charles I who was executed by Cromwell. William played a major role in the sucess of the Dutch in asserting their ndependence and in supporting Protestant states against the two major powers of the age--Spain and France. William died in 1702 as a result of from complications falling a fall from a horse.
Princess Anne was born in 1665. She was the second daughter of James II and Anne Hyde. She was still very young at the time of her father's short reign (1685-89) and had no official positon. She sided with ided with her sister and brother-in-law (Mary II and William III) during the Glorious Revolution. She married Prince George of Denmark, they but failed to produce a heir toth throne that survived. Queen Anne died at the relatively young age of 49 years as a result of the blood disease porphyria which she had suffered since childhood. King William III's untimely death effectively nullified the Settlement Act of 1701. As a result, James' daughter through Protestant daughter was an acceptable new queen. Anne in a rare behavior for a Steart, maintained good relations with Parliament. She was, however, th the last British sovereign to veto an act of Parliament. One of the most significant acts in British history occurred during her reign--the 1707 Act of Union which created modern Britain by fully uniting England with Scotland--Ireland did not join the Union until 1801. The Stuart monarchs were noted for their reliance on favorites. Anne followed in this tradition. Anne's closest confidant was Sarah Churchill. She had considrable influence over the Queen--king. This provided Sarah's husband, the Duke of Marlborough, great influence in th British Government. The Duke was perhaps the greatest military genius in British history. The Duke led the English -Dutch resistance to Louis XIV in the War of Spanish Succession. Anne and Sarah for many years were inseparable for years. She was perhaps the most powerful woman (non-monarch) in British history until Margaret Thatcher. Sarah gradually overstepped the bound of their relationship. She irritated the Queen by showing a lack of respect and even reproched Anne in private. Understanding the impotance of cultivating the Queen, Tory leaders installed Abigail Hill in the Queen's household. She was much more differential toward Anne than Sarah and gradually Anne turned to Abigail. The Queen and Marlbourough quarreled over the issue of succession. Anne dismissed Marlborough, ignorring his military achievements, and Sarah was forced to leave court. Britain'a modern two-party system wasborn in the struggles beteen Whigs and Torries during Queen Ane' reign. Anne was undecided about the succession. Family ties compelled her to favor her half-brother--the Old Pretender who was favored by the Tories. She had however sided with th Whigs when she supported Williamand Mary against her father James II. After considerable soul searching, Anne aceded to the the Act of
Settlement. The result was that she was the final Stuwart monarch. The Whigs succeded ith their cndcidate, King Geoge of Hanover. paved the way for the succession of their candidate, King George of Hanover.
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