King Maximilian I Joseph: Second Family

Figure 1.--.


King Maximillian I

Kurfürst Max IV Joseph, a distant cousin of Kurfürst Karl Theodor, succeeded to the throne. He was elevated in 1806 to King Maximilian I Joseph by Napoleon through the treaty of Pressburg, , in thanks for Bavaria's joining the French cause. Bavaria was now a kingdom for the first time in its history. The king, formerly the Elector Maximilian I Joseph, assisted Napoleon in his wars, and in return received large additions of territory. In 1813, however, Maximilian contrived to change sides opportunely, and thus managed to have confirmed to him, by the treaties of 1814-15, an extent of territory nearly as valuable as the possessions which he had gained as an ally of Napoleon, and which he had now to restoreto Austria. A new constitution was granted in 1818 which restablished the the authority of the Crown. Max Joseph arranged a grand festival in 1810 to mark the wedding of his son, crown prince Ludwig, to Therese Charlotte Luise, Princess of Saxony-Hildburghausen. This was the first Oktoberfest. Another son is noted for a daughter, the Princess Elizabeth, a future Queen of Belgium.

Catharine of Baden Zähringen

Max Joseph second marriage was with Catharine of Baden Zähringen in 1797. Her father was Karl Ludwig of Baden (1755- ). Her mother was Amalie Friederike of Hessen-Darmstadt (1754- )


Max Joseph has seven more children with Catharine. The royal couople, unusually had two sets of twins. One of each set of twins played a major role in the two most important German rotal dynasties, the Hohenzollerns of Prussia who founded the German Empire and the Hapsburgs of Austria.

Maximilian (1800-1803)

Maximilian died as a young child.

Elizabeth of Bavaria (twin, 1801-73)

Elizabeth married Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV (1795-1861) in 1823. Frederich Wilhelm acceded to the throne in 1840. He served during a critical time in Prussia history. Prussia and the rest of Europe was rocked by the liberal revolutions of 1848. The King came to London to ask for support from Prince Albert and Queen Victoria. Albert who usually had good judgement, badly misevaluated the Hohenzollerens. Albert saw them as the founders of a truly German nation, but thought they would found a constituional monarchy based on a democratic foundation. Frederick William was to alienate British opinion when he failed to join Britain and France in the Crimean War against Russia. This was the first step in Britain's gradual shift in viewing France rather than Prussia and then Germany as its primary continental ally. The King's growing senility gave rise to regency by his brother Wilhelm who was to succeed him. Queen Elizabeth and many in Prussia were not enthusiastic with the choice of an English bride Victoria, for their nephew Friderich. Elizabeth and Frederich Wilhelm did not have any children so when the king died in 1861, his brother Wilhelm inherited the crown.

Amelia (twin, 1801-77)

Amelia was Elizabeth's twin. She lived until 1877, a few years longer than her more famous sister. We have, however, no information on her life at this time.

Maria (twin, 1805-77)

Maria lived a long life, but we have no information on her at this time.

Sophie (twin, 1805-72)

Princess Sophie married Archduke Franz Karl of Austria. As an Austrian Archduchess, she became very converned about the affair between her half brother, King Ludwig I, and an actress--Lola Montez. She wrote to her brother, but to little effect. Sophie and Franz Karl had three children. The eldest, Franz Josef (1830- ), became Emperor of Austria. The second son was Maximilian (1832-67). Royal historians believe that Maximillian was not actually the son of Franz Karl. There is a wide-spread belief that he was actually the son of Napoleon II, Duke of Reichstadt. There are several reasons for believing that. First there was a particularly affenctionate relationship between Sophie and Napoleon II. Second, Sophie in fact never recovered from Napoleon II's untimely death. She blamed it on Count Metternich and hated him for the rest of her life. Third, Maximilian stature and face resembled Napoleon II more than than either Franz Karl or his brothers. Maximillian's marriage to the Bavarian princess Carlotta is on of the great love stories of the 19th century. When the French attempted to install as Emperor of Mexico in 1863. Napoleon III's choice is in part a reflection of the wide-spread belief that Maximilian's father was actuall the Bonaparte Napoleon II. Maximillian mer atragic end in Mexico. He was shot by Mexican Republican forces in 1867 after the Emperor Napoleon III withdrew French forces. The third son was Karl Ludwig (1833-1906) became Archduke of Austria, but had to be exiled after being convicted of taking gross indecencies with a boy at a public bath. While Karl Ludwig played only a minor role himself in Austrian affairs, he himself became very important in terms of dynastic succession. Arch Duke Karl Ludwig married Margaret of Saxony (Wettin) in 1856, but had no children. He then married Annunciata of Sicily (Bourbon) in 1862. They had two children: Francis Ferdinand (1863-1914) and Otto (1865- ). When Francis Joseph's only son Crown Prince Rudolf killed himself in 1889, the succession then went to Arch Duke Karl Ludwig and after his death in 1906 to his discendents. His son was Franz Ferdinand who became heir to the throne, but was assasinated by Serbian revolutionaries in 1914, setting off World War I. Otto married Princess Maria-Jose of Saxony to satisfy the dynasty's pressing need for heirs. The marriage was loveless, and even though two children were born of it, Emperor Karl I and Archduke Ferdinand. Arch Duke Karl Ludwig homself married a third time to Maria Teresa da Imaculda (Kleinheubach to de Bragança) in 1873. They had one child, Elisabeth Amalia (1878- ).

Ludovica/Louise (1808- )

Ludovica married Duke Maximilian Joseph of Bavaria (1808-1888). Their third child, Elizabeth (1837- ), married Franz Josef and became the Emperess of Austria. Their fourth child was Karl Teodor "Gackl" (1839-1909). He married Maria Josepha de Bragança of Portugal in 1874. They had two children: Elisabeth (1876- ) and Maria Gabriele (1878- ). Elisabeth became the Belgian Queen after marrying Prince Albert.

Maximiliana (1810-21)

Maximiliana died in childhood at 10-11 years of age. I do not know what the cause of death was.


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Created: May 6, 2002
Last updated: 11:04 PM 12/5/2007