Alfonso XIII was one of Spain's longest ruling monarchs. He was King of Spain from 1886-1931. Alfonso mairred Victoria-Eugenie (one of Queen Victoria's forty grandchildren, who died in 1969. She was also a Battenberg, her mother was Princess Beatrice and her father Price Henry of Battenberg. King Alfonso XIII had six children. One Prince Juan Carlos would eventually regain the Spanish crown for his son that his father lost. Alfonso XIII supported the military dictatorship (1923-30) of Miguel Primo de Rivera, but social unrest and a republican election victory led to his deposition and exile (1931). The resulting Republic was attacked in 1936 by rebel forced organized by Francisco Franco who commanded Spain's forces in Morocco. The resulting Civil War horrified Europe and was in effect the prelude to World war II. Aided by NAZI Germany and Fascist Italy, Franco won and Franco ruled until his death in 1975. Alfonso XIII hoped that Franco would reinstall him on the throne, but Franco refused to do so. Alfonso died in 1941 at the height of World War II.
Alfonso's father was King Alfonso XII. His mother was the Hapsburg Princess Maria Cristina.
Alfonso was born at the Royal Palace in Madrid during 1886, about 6 months after the death of his father. He was proclimed king on the day of his birth. This was a unique case in Spanish history.
Alfonso's mother, Queen Maria Cristina, who was acting as Regent after the death of her husband, served as Regent for her son. During her regency, the United States decalred war on Spain in 1898 and seized Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and other Spanish colonial possessions. Alfonso in 1902, when he became 16 years old was declared of legal age and began his rule as Alfonso XIII.
Alfonso had two older sisters.
Maria was born in 1880 and mairred Prince Carlos of Bourbon-Sicily in 1901. They had three children Alphonse of Bourbon-Sicily (1901), Ferdinan of Bourbon-Sicily (1903), Isabella of Bourbon-Sicily (1904).
Maria Theresa was born in 1882. She mairred Ferdinand of Bavaria in 1906. They had no children. Maria Thresa died in 1912.
We have no information on Alfonso's childhood at this time.
We have no information on the clothing Alfonso wore as a boy.
We have no details on Alfonso's education.
Queen Ena was born Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, one of Queen Victoria's 40 grandchildren. She was born at Balmoral Castle in Scotland (1887). Her father was Prince Henry of Battenberg. The Prince was the fourth child and third son of Prince Alexander of Hesse von Rhine by his morganatic wife Countess Julia Hauke. Her mother was Princess Beatrice, the fifth daughter and youngest child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Prince Henry was the product of a morganatic marriage in which neither his wife of lower rank and their children had any claim to the possessions or title of Prince Henry. Prince Henry took the name Battenberg from his mother who was created Princess of Battenberg in her own right. Prince Henry's children were entitled to style 'Serene Highness'. Queen Victoria had, however, issued a Royal Warrant (1996) granting the higher style of "Highness" to all sons and daughters of Prince Henry and her granddaughter Princess Beatrice. Victorian Eugenia was born Her Highness Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg. She was named for her grandmother Victoria and for her godmother Eugénie de Montijo, the Spanish-born French Empress (wife of Napoleon III) who lived in exile in the United Kingdom. Within the family and the British general public, she was known by the last of her names -- Ena. It was always planned for Princess Beatrice to care for her mother in her old age. Victoria Eugenie thus grew up in Queen Victoria's household. The Queen reluctantly allowed Beatrice to marry on the condition that she remain her mother's full-time companion and personal secretary. Thus Victoria Eugenie spent her childhood at Windsor Castle, Balmoral, and Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. Her linneage as a granddaughter of Queen Victoria links her to the royal families of much of Europe. Despite her German father, she grew up throughly English. She was a bridesmaid at the wedding of her cousins, the Duke (later King George V) and Duchess of York (1893). Her father died while on active military service after contracting fever in Africa (1896). After the death of Queen Victoria (1901), the Battenbergs moved to London and took up residence in Kensington Palace. Spainish King Alfonso XIII visited Britain (1905). It was a state visit, but the King was looking for a wife. Princess Patricia of Connaught, King Edward VIII's niece was though to be a suitable candidate, but Victoria Eugenie caught Alfonso's eye. Alfonso mairred Victoria-Eugenie at the Church of San Jeronimo in Madrid (1906). She became Queen Ena. King Alfonso XIII and Queen Ena had seven children. It was a large happy family with the children fairly close in age. The English look of the children's clothing suggest Queen Ena personally selected them. She seems to have taken an active role in raising the children. Most available images show the Queen with the children and not the King or the two of them together. Victoria Eugenie devoted herself to various charutable works. The were primarily hospitals and services for the poor. She was also interesred in education. She helped reorganize the Spanish Red Cross. After Alfonso was deposed the royal family left Spain and lived in Italy and Switzerland. The British, we think for diplomaric reasons, did not want her to return to Britain. The Queen died in Switzerland during 1969.
King Alfonso XIII and Queen Ena had seven children. It was a large happy family with the children fairly close in age. The revolution establishing the Republic (1931) and the Spanish Civil War (1936-39), affected the status of the Spanish royal family. Alphonso Pius and Alfonso's other older sons abdigated or renounced their claims to the crown. The Republic overthrew the monarchy (1931). General Francisco Franco led a revolution which led to the Civil War and overthrew pf the the Republic (2936-39). Franco did not, however, immediately restore the monarchy. It was to be a younger son, Prince Juan Carlos, that would eventually regain the Spanish crown for his son that his own father had lost.
We have no written information on the clothing worn by the children. Available images show that the boys when they were younger wore a variety of short pants outfits. Some appear to be simple jumoers and shorts. Ither outfits appear to be button-on suits with blouses and shorts. White socks were normally worm with shirts. At a slightly older age they began wearing long pants sailor suits with wide-brimmed sailior hats. As older boys they wore knicker suits and Eton collars. The girls appear to have worn extensive head gear out of doors. I think the fashion at the time was to avoid getting any kind of tan
Alfonso XIII was one of Spain's longest ruling monarchs. He was King of Spain from 1886-1931. Alfonso XIII supported the military dictatorship (1923-30) of Miguel Primo de Rivera, but social unrest and a republican election victory led to his deposition and exile (1931). After the triumph of a republican-Socialist coaltion plebecite in the major cities, Alfonso XIII left the country, facilitating the proclamation of the Second Republic. The King from exile supported several attempts of monarchic restoration, especially the unsuccessful military risinhg of July 18, 1936. The Second Republic was attacked in 1936 by rebel forced organized by Francisco Franco who commanded Spain's forces in Morocco. The resulting Civil War horrified Europe and was in effect the prelude to World War II. Aided by NAZI Germany and Fascist Italy, Franco won and Franco ruledSpain until his death (1975). Alfonso with his family lived in France and Switzerland, but settled in Rome. He assigned the Spanish the dynastic rights of the Bourbon in the person of his third son man, Juan, after the resignations of Princes Alfonso and Jaime. Alfonso XIII hoped that Franco would reinstall him on the throne, but Franco refused to do so. Alfonso died in Rome 1941) at the height of World War II. He was burried in the church of Montserrat of Rome until his remains were transfered to the Panteón Real del Monasterio de El Escorial (1980).
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