International Governmental Organizations: The United Nations


Figure 1.-- The Soviet Union in its dealings with the Inited States in occupied Geramy commonly obstructed efforts at cooperation by boycotting the Komandura and other agencies established to administer occupied Germany. It used the same tactics in the new United Nations. As a result, the Soviet delegate was absent from the Security Council when the issue of North Korea invading South Korea came up (June 1950). As a result, Korea was a rare instance of U.N. action against Soviet aggression, in this case a Soviet proxy. The press caption here read, "A Korean small-fry sits at head of chow line apparently amazed at the frienliness of UN troops. Note the warm clothing, rubber boots, and GI cap. Picture ws made shortly after UN troops entered the captured barren and demolished town." The photograph was February 9, 1951. Photographer: Irvin Tress.

The League of Nations failed in the face of totalitarian Fascist and Soviet aggression. Its successor was the United Nations which began to organize during World under the agesis of U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The name 'United Nations' was chosen by President Roosevelt to differentiate it from the League of Nations. The name was first used in the 'Declaration by United Nations' (January 1, 1942) a few weeks after the United States entered World War II. Representatives of 26 nations pledged their Governments to pursue the war against the Axis powers which launched the War in both Europe and Asia. (The Soviet Union had joined the NAZIs in launching the War, but was forced to swich sides when the NAZIs invaded.) Representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization after the War to draw up the United Nations Charter (September 1945). The delegates deliberated on the basis of proposals worked out by the representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States at Dumbarton Oaks, United States (August-October 1944). The Charter was signed by the representatives of the 50 countries (June 26, 1945). Poland was not represented at the Conference, but signed it later and became one of the original 51 Member States. The United Nations officially came into existence (October 24, 1945). This was when the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and by a majority of other signatories. The great powers (Britain, China, France, soviet Union, and the United states) were given veto power in the Security Council. The Soviets wanted a vote in the General Assembly for each of its 16 constiuent republics. In the end it got three votes in the General Assembly (the extra two were for Beloyrusia and the Ukraine). One of the first U.N. agencies, actully created before the U.N.itself. was UNRRA. Another important U.N. agency working with children is United Nations International Emergency Children's Fund (UNICEF). It was one of the first projects of the newly created United Nations. The General Assembly created UNICEF (December 11, 1946). Its initial mission was to provide emergency food and healthcare to children in countries devastated by World War II. UNICEF proved so sucessful that the United Nations decided it was essential and made it a permanent part of the United Nations System (1953). Its name was shortened, but it has continued to be known by acronym based on this previous name because it was such a popular agency and the original acronym had become so well known. The United Nations, like the League of Nations, failed to live up to its unrealistic expectations. The Cold War made decisive action impossible. Action against Communist agression in Korea as only possible because of a Soviet boycott. Another problem was the aceeptance of countries that do not live up to the U.N. Univeral Declaration of Human Rights (1948). The Arabs countries were very disturbe about passages on women. And the Soviet Union at the time was operating a vast Gulag with the very purpose of supressing human rights. And you have countries like Libya under Qadafi on the Human Richts Committee and Iran under the Mullahs on the Women's Rights Commision.

Foundation

The League of Nations failed in the face of totalitarian Fascist and Soviet aggression. Its successor was the United Nations which began to organize during World under the agesis of U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The name 'United Nations' was chosen by President Roosevelt to differentiate it from the League of Nations. The President was a Wilsonian Democrat who had supported President Wilson and the League after World War I. The League had engendered such controversy and ultimately failed that the President wanted a new name for its successor. The name was first used in the 'Declaration by United Nations' (January 1, 1942) a few weeks after the United States entered World War II. Representatives of 26 nations pledged their Governments to pursue the war against the Axis powers which launched the War in both Europe and Asia. (The Soviet Union had joined the NAZIs in launching the War, but never joined the Axis. They were forced to switch sides when the NAZIs invaded.) Mostly the United States used the term United Nations in dedescribing the Allied war effort. The term was also used in relief efforts, most prominately with the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA). Fund raising efforts also used the term United Nations. All of this occurred before the United Nations was actually founded. Representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the end of the War. It was here at the United Nations Conference on International Organization that the United Nations Charter wasadopted and the United Nations actually came into existence (September 1945). The delegates deliberated on the basis of proposals worked out by the representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States at Dumbarton Oaks, United States (August-October 1944). The Charter was signed by the representatives of the 50 countries (June 26, 1945). Poland was not represented at the Conference, but signed it later and became one of the original 51 Member States. The United Nations officially came into existence (October 24, 1945). This was when the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and by a majority of other signatories. The public face of the United Nations is the Secretary General who heads the organizatioon's Secretariat.

Organs

The three primary organs of the United Nations are the Security Council, the Generall Assembly, and the Secretariat. The great powers (Britain, China, France, soviet Union, and the United states) were given veto power in the Security Council. The Soviets early on began boycotting Security Council meetings to disrupt proceedings. This was the approach taken in with efforts yo oversee the combined Allied-Soviet occupation of Germany. When North Korea with Soviet encouragement invaded South Korea (June 1950), the Soviets were boycotting the Security Council. Thus when the United States brought up the invasion, the Soviets were not present to veto United Nations involvement. The Security Council condemned the unprovoked North Korean invasion and authorized the use of force. The Soviets were not there to veto the resolution. It was a mistake they would not make again. The Soviets imitially wanted a vote in the General Assembly for each of its 16 constiuent republics. In the end it got three votes in the General Assembly (the extra two were for Beloyrusia and the Ukraine).

Agencies

The U.N. System is composed of a number of permanent and temporary agencies. The work of some of these agencies can be critictizized, but some like UNRRA, UNICEF, and WHO have done such valuable work that even shrp U.N. criticis admire their work. the One of the first U.N. agencies, actually created before the U.N.itself. was UNRRA. It was the first U.N. agency to launch an important humanitarian effort. Another important U.N. agency working with children is United Nations International Emergency Children's Fund (UNICEF). It was one of the first projects of the newly created United Nations. The General Assembly created UNICEF (December 11, 1946). Its initial mission was to provide emergency food and healthcare to children in countries devastated by World War II. UNICEF proved so sucessful that the United Nations decided it was essential and made it a permanent part of the United Nations System (1953). Although many controversies surround various U.N. agencies, UNICEF is the single most respected and popular agenciey in the U.N. System. Its name was shortened, but it has continued to be known by acronym based on this previous name because it was such a popular agency and the original acronym had become so well known. The United Nations, like the League of Nations, failed to live up to its unrealistic expectations. The Cold War made decisive action impossible. Action against Communist agression in Korea ws only possible because of a Soviet boycott. Another problem was the aceeptance of countries that do not live up to the U.N. Univeral Declaration of Human Rights (1948). And actually use the United Nations to undermine the very principles on which it was founded. The Arabs countries were very disturbe about passages on women. And the Soviet Union at the time was operating a vast Gulag which was founded with very purpose of supressing human rights. And you have countries like Libya under Qadafi on the Human Rights Committee and Iran under the Mullahs on the Women's Rights Commision. Another very important U.N. agency is the World Health Organization








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Created: 4:25 PM 4/28/2014
Last updated: 7:46 AM 7/28/2017