Paintings provide many interesting details about fashion trends in different countries, especially before the 20th Century. Paintings offer the advantage of, unlike photographs they are also identified by countrty and time. Our master list of painters in the alphabetical individual listing. We are also cross referencing the artists here to help develop fashion trends in each country. This is somewhat complicated by the fact that many important countries only became unified nation states in very recent times. This is especially the case of Italy (1860) and Germany (1871), two major countries. There are many other complications such as the absorption of Dutch speaking Flanders in French dominated Belgium or wheter to include Alsatian artists in Germany or France. Our country art pages are mostly European at this time. We hope that our readers in other countries will provide us the information needed to develop country pages in other regions.
We have almost no information on African art at this time. African primotive art has been admired by art figures, but provide little realistic depiction in our effort gto develop fashion information. We do note the beautifully decorated churches in Ethiopia. A good example is an unidentified fresco in a monastary in Lake Tana, perhaps dated to the 16th century. Interestingly it has a rather Indian look.
We know of very few notable Latin American artists. We are not sure why this is. Surely economics is a factor. It is wealthy countries that produce great art. And Latin America has languashed in poverty during the Spanish colonial era as well after indepependence. Latin America continues to be very poor in comprison to Europe and North America, although since the rise of free market capitalism during recent years in some countries there has been considerable progress, Hopefully our Latin American readers will be able to provide us some information.
We know of only one Ecuadorian artist of note at this time. We note a painting of a youthful mulatto nobel in the service of the Spanish King (Philip III) is Don Domingo Arobé. He wears gold jewelry, but not in the European fashion and carries a Spanish pike. This is a detail from a larger portrait. We know the portrait was painted in Ecuador (1599). The artist was Adrián Sánchez Gálquez. By that time, Spanish control of Peru and Ecuador was firmly established.
We have found few Mexican artists of note, but of course incourage Mexican reader to forward us information on important national artists. We have found a painting by an unidentified artiist, we thin from about the 1830s. The most stunning art from Mexico is of course the work of the great muralists like Rivera and Orocozo. Their work is highly political focusing on the Spanish Conquest and the suppression of the Native American people. The modern period is depicted in leftist terms, capitalists exploiting workers and idealizing Communism. While artistically striking, the murals are telling for what one does not see. Totaly absent from this work is the Soviet state's supression of peasants and the horrors of the Gulag. Also missing is any appreciation of how democracy and capitalism in America and Europe were generating the jibs and wealth which for the first time were allowing the average individual to achieve a prosperous life. It is no accident that millions of Mexicans asppiring for a better life have been forced to emigrate, usually illegally, to the United States. This revolutionary mindset is still prevalent in Latin America, a factor in explaining why so many countries in the region languish in inefficenies, corruption, and endemic poverty and
We only know of one Peruvian artist at this time, the modern painter Fernando Sayan Polo (Peru, 1947- ). We also notice a charming drawing by Marin Pescador of a Andean boy.
North America primarily means America and Canada. Mexico is of course part of North Anmerica, but for cultural reasons seems better to include with the rest of Latin America. America of course compared to Europe has a very recent art history. Here some of the most valuable work was done by primitive or naive artists in the late-17th and early-mid 19th century before the advent of photography. These artista while their perspective was often weak often did provide very detailed reproductions of clothing in their portaits which is of emense value in assessing historical fashion trends. Of course the greatest American portratist has to be John Singer Seargent, but unfortunately he painted only a small number of children. We know nothing about Canadian art at this time. Hopefully our Canadian readers will provide us some insights.
We know nothing about Canadian art at this time. There seem to be very few notable Canadian artists. The country's smll population may be a factor here. Hopefully our Canadian readers will provide us some insights.
America of course has a very recent art history. Here some of the most valuable work was done by primitive or naive artists in the late 17th and early-mid 19th century before the advent of photography. These artista while their perspective was often weak often did provide very detailed reproductions of clothing in their portaits which is of emense value in assessing historical fashion trends. Perhaps the American artist most associated with children is Mary Cassat. Of course the greatest American portratist has to be John Singer Seargent, but unfortunately he painted only a small number of children. This is, of course, only a preliminary list. We hope that HBC readers will suggest other American artists that we should included on this list. Modern atrtists are less interested in realistic depiction, making them less useful for HBC, but of course with the wealth of photographic images, art is less important as a source of fashion information.
We do not know a great deal about Asian art. Chinese and Japanese painting is particularly notable, but seens to focus on landscape to a far greater degree than Wettern art. This presumably is a reflection of the basic cultural attitudes toward the importance of the individual. Hoefully our readers who are mopre knowledgeable about Asian art will be able to tell us more about this. And unlike Europe, there was no powerful religious institution that channeled and controlled Western art for more than a mellenium. Painting seems much less important in Asia than Europe, at least outside the Chinese cultural orbit. Of course the Chimese cultural orbit is a substantial part of Asia. Here Islam may be a factor because of Koranic prohibitions of human depictions. Even in non-Muslim India, painting seems less important than other art firms.
We do not yet have much information on Tajik art. Painting has not been a major art form in many Islamic societies, because some Muslims believe that people as beings with souls should not be depicted. This believe has not been universal as we have noted both Turkish and Persian paintings depicting people. Tajiks as a people of Persian origins in Central Asia have been strongly influenced by Persian art forms. Art historians note distinctive Tajik (Persian) painting dates back to the Seljuk period (11th-13th Century AD), which described as the "Baghdad School". Painting was primarily devoted to decorate manuscripts, especially editions of the Koran. During the Mongol period (1256-1394) paintings was also used to decorate books. Tajikm painting and book illumination declined after tghe 14th century. Tajik art was primarily exopressed through crafts as metalwork, pottery and embroidery all forms creating household objects. Thus Tajik art was essentially devoted to crafts and a range of folk art. We have noted some paintings during the Soviet era, but have limited information about them.
No region has contributed more to the world of art than Europe. Here the primary medium has been painting in all its many mediums (fresco, oils, and water colors). The foundation of Western art is the classical tradition of Greece and Rome. Here painting was not as important as it was yo become, but still of some importance, esopecially in Fome. European medieval art developed out of the artistic heritage of clasical Greece and Rome as it mixed with the iconographic traditions of the new Christian church. This varied around Europe and they intertwined with the vigorous if less regfined Barbarian, often largely Germanic, culture of northern Europe. All of the major European countries have made important artistic contributions. At first Italy was the center of Western art. France may have made the most important contribution, but England is not far behind. Spain has lefft us some very important artists. Perhaps the important European country with the weakest artistic tradition is Prussia, but other German states (especially Austria and Bavaria) made important contributions. A very important factor here is wealth and only wealthy countrues provide the economic foundation for art. An interesting observation here is a connection between art and science. Countries with important artistic traditions have also made important contributions in science. This connection was broken in southern Europe with the Inquisition and Counter-Reformztion. It is Western art that we focus on for HBC, largely because it is Western art that focuses strongly on people, especially individuals. This is a tradition that beggan with the Greeks and powerfully resurfaced during the Renaissance and continues to this day. We found many important depictions of children and their clothing.
The Middle-East and North Africa have a very weak tradition of painting due to Koranic prohibitions concerning depictions of humans. There are some exceptions such as Iran (Persia) and Turkey, but for the most part we have few paintings to work with from the Islamic world.
Hasan Kaptan is an interesting artist born in Ankara. He was recognized as a talented artist as a boy when he began producing modern art. He traveled widely and studid in France. His art did not focus on Trkish scenes. Kaptan settled in Normandy and has a special interest in in art therapy.
There are, however, some images painted by Western artists. A good example is Frederick Goodall, an English artist who traveled in Egypt. His contemprary work provide fascinating images of 19th century Egypt. There is beautiful caligraphy and decorative work adorning mosques, but very little in the way of painting. Interestingly the same is true of science. Just as sceiene and art seem to follow each other in Europe, the lack of representational art in the Islamic world seems to have mirrored the lack of scientific inquiry. There have been almost no notable Muslim scientists emerging from the Islamic world since the 12th century. Even today in our modern world where science is so important, there are virtually no scientists of any stature in Muslim countries nor have there been scientific or medical advances emerging from Muslim countries.
The number of Tahitian artists is limited. And most of the artists we know of are Europeans are of European origins. Surely the most famous images of Oceania are those painted by Gaughin in Tahiti during the 19th century. There were also colonial images from the Philippines, most of areligious character. We note a few Australian and New Zealand painters. The most populace country in the region is Indonesia, but here Islamic prohibitions have discouraged painting. Presumably there was some work by Dutch artists, but we do not yet have any information on such work.
Australian artists have provided some wonderful images of nature (the Outback). It was man's taming of nature during the 19th and early 20th centuriesthat was the focus. As might be expected, this was a theme also exceptionally addressed by two countries with similar experiences with nature--America and Russia. Two Australian artists, Arthur Streeton (1867-1943) and Tom Roberts (1856-1931) established an artist camp at Box Hill (near Melbourne) and later Heidelberg which has become the name of their school. Some children appear in their paintings as they were of course a part of the settlement of Australia.
The most populace country in the region is Indonesia, but here Islamic prohibitions have discouraged painting. Presumably there was some work by Dutch artists, but we do not yet have any information on such work.
We have virtually no information about New Zealand artists. We do note English artist William Beetham. Beetham made his name as a society portraitist. He exhibited at the Royal Academy (1834-53). Beetham had a society clientelle. He exhibited a fine portrait of the former Prime Minister, Frederick Robinson, Viscount Goderich (1843). Dorset Reverend Natanile Bond wanted his family to be depicted by a respected artist and he could afford it. He thus chose Beetham. A few years after painting the Bond family, Beetham emigrated to New Zealand (1855). He thus became one of the most accomplished artists in New Zealand in a relatively early stage of its colonial history. He was elected the first President of the Fine Arts Association in Wellington (1882). One of the better known New Zealand painter is Gottfried Lindauer (1839-1926). He was a Czech-New Zealander painter famous for his portraits including those of the Maori people, the indigenous Polynsian people the Engliush found on New Zealand. We note a Lindauer dated 1907, depicting Maori children playing knucklebones. The game was popular with Maori children who called it 'ruru'. It was played with five stones thrown into the air and caught deftly on the back of the hand. C.F. Goldie (1870-1947) was another imprtant artis painting the Maori. Peter Waddell is an artist who began his career in New Zealand, but emograted to the United States and is now best known for painting U.S. historical cenes, especially White House scenes.
There were also colonial images from the Philippines, nost of areligious character.
Surely the most famous images of Oceania are those painted by Paul Gaughin in Tahiti and the Marquesas during the late-19th century. Gauguin was one of the foremost painters of the Post-impressionist movement. Together with Cezanne and Van Gogh, they reshaped modern art. Gauguin in 1891, ruined and in debt, sailed for the South Seas to escape European civilization, showing his distaste for Europe and "everything that is artificial and conventional." Except for one visit to France from 1893 to 1895, he remained in the Tropics for the rest of his life, first in Tahiti and later in the Marquesas Islands. Gauguin left France on 3 July 1895, never returned.
We have found some paintings that we are unable to identify by country. American paintaings are relatively easy to identify. Identifying the natiinality of European paintings is often mych more comolicated. we will post paintings here that we have had difficulty idebtifying. Hopefully HBC readers will have some insights to offer.
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