Chronology: 1st Century BC


Figure 1.--

Epicureanism another of the many Grek influences on Rome becomes increasingly important in Roman thought. The Social War with other Italian city states occur (91-89 BC). Sulla marches on Rome (88 BC). Cinna rules (87-84 BC). Marius dies (86 BC). Cinna is killed (84 BC). A civil war occurs between the supporters of Marius and Sulla (83-81 BC). Sulla wmerges victorious and is appointed Dictator. He conducts a blood bath of anyone he preceives as an ememy (82-79 BC). Sulla dies (78 BC). Spartucus leads a slave revolt (73-71 BC). Sulla favored the the aristocracy. Julius Caesar and Pompey who are more concerned with the common Romans unite to seize control of the government, but in the process become rivals. Pompey and Crassus rule as consuls (70 BC). Pompey fights pirates and Mithridates in the Eastern Mediterrean (67-62 BC). Horace writes the Odes which glorifies the magesty of empire (65 BC). Horace's works come to be seen as an attempt to unite the philosophical traditins of Epicureanism and Stoicism. Cicero becomes consul (63 BC) The Catiline conspiracy occurs (63 BC). Julius Caesar is elected Pontifex Maximus (63 BC). Pompey returns from the East in triumph and disbands army (62 BC). The First Triumvirate (Pompey, Crassus, and Caesar) governs Rome (60 BC). Ceasar campaigns in Gaul and defeats the major tibes in a ruthless campaign (58-50 BC). Ceasar's campaign in Gaul is incredibly ruthless, but places a Roman stamp on Gaul and plays aajor role in romanizing Western Europe. The great orator Cicero defies Ceasar. The second consulship of Pompey and Crassus occurs (55 BC). Caesar conducts thes first invasion of Britain, but fails (55 BC). Ceasar's wife Julia dies (54 BC). Caesar invades Britain again (54 BC). The Parthian decisively defeat a Roman army led by rassus forces at Carrhae in Mesopotamia (53 BC). Some 5,500 Romans are killed in the battle and 6,000 executed after surrendering. Crassus was also executed after the battle. Pompey is elected as sole consul by the Senate (52 BC). Cleopatra in Egypt becomes the joint ruler of Egypt with her brother (51 BC). Cisero believes that Ceasar threatens th Republic and is intrumental in having him declared an enemy of the Roman Republic. Caesar still in Gaul marches south, crosses the Rubicon and takes Rome (49 BC). Caesar and Pompey wage civil war and meet in battle at Pharsalus in Greece (48 BC) Caesar campaigns in Egypt and Asia Minor. He meets Cleopatra in Egypt and hgelps install her in power. Ceasar is appointed Dictator and takes effective control of the state from the Senate (56 BC) He has a child, Cesearion with Cleopatra. Senators led by Brutus are onvnved that Ceasar pland to end the Republic and declar himself king. To prevent this they assasiante Caesar in the Senate (44 BC). The Second Triumvirate (Antony, Lepidus, Octavian) rules Rome (43-33 BC). Octavian becomes First Consul (43). Ceasar had forgiven Cicero, but Octavian orders him executed (43 BC). Octavian returns to Rome intent on claiming his inheritance. He allies himself with Caesar's friends, Mark Antony and Lepidus. They proceed to overthrow the aristocrats responsible for killing Caesar. Octavian and Mark Anthony support Caesar's deification. Octavian and Anthony defeat Casius and Brutus at the battle of Philippi (42 BC). Antony meets Cleopatra and becomes enchanted by her (41 BC). Antony marries Octavia, Octavian's sister (40 BC). Octavian marries Livia (38 BC). Antony marries Cleopatra (37 BC). Octavian becomdes consul for the second time (33 BC). A rivalry develops between Octavian in the west and Mark Antony and his new easterm ally, Cleopatra. Antony divorces Octavia and publishes the terms of Antony's will to descredit him (32 BC). Octavian and Augustus becomes consuls as war wages between Octavian and Anthony. Octavia defears the combined forces of Anthony and Cleopatra at Actium (31 BC). The battle is one of the most significant in history. Had Anthony and Cleopatra pervailed, the character and dominant cultural influences of the Empire would have been shifted east. It will be the Greek ideals and the Republican laws of Rome that will be passed on to Western civilization rather than Asian despotism. Antony and Cleopatra commit suiside (30 BC). Octavian becomes tribune (30 BC). Octavian returns to Rome and receives a three-fold triumph. Octavian's victory begins a period of Roman history, the Principate or Early Empire. The Senate and army bestow the name of Augustus and emperor "victorious general" upon Octavian. He is now known as Augustus or Ceasar Augustus. The Arch of Augustus in dedicated in the forum (29 BC). The Legislation of the Augustan Principate is issued (27 BC). Augustus build a palace on the Palatine (27 BC). Construction begins of the Pantheon and Baths of Agrippa (27 BC). Augustus changes his legal position. He resigns the consulship and is granted tribunician powers for life (23 BC). Augustus concerned about declining moral standards issues the Julian Laws on marriage and morality (18 BC). The Secular Games are initiated (17 BC). Augustus adopts Gaius and Lucius Caesar (17 BC). Augustus becomes Pontifex Maximus (12 BC). Tiberius divorces Agrippina and marries Julia (11 BC). Augustus continues to revise his title, again becoming Consul. He is granted the title of Pater Patriae meaning father of the country (2 BC). The Forum of Augustus and of temple of Mars the Avenger is dedicated (2 BC). Augustus exiles his daughter Julia for gross imortality (2 BC).

Philosophy

Epicureanism another of the many Grek influences on Rome becomes increasingly important in Roman thought.

Literature

Horace writes the Odes which glorifies the magesty of empire (65 BC). Horace's works come to be seen as an attempt to unite the philosophical traditions of Epicureanism and Stoicism. In spite of the disastrous civil strife which occured in the first century BC, it is theGolden age of Roman literature. The final years of the Republic are perhaps the greatest perioid in Roman literature. It is known as Ciceronian Age (70-43 BC). It is followed by the Augustan Age (43 BC-14 AD). Interestingly not only was Ciscero an accomplished writer, but so was Ceasar. The greatest scholar was Terence. The two greatest writers were Catallus and Lucretius. Livy writes The Histiry of Rome. Poetry reaches a new level with Vergil, Horace, and Ovid. Horace writes the Odes which glorifies the magesty of empire (65 BC).

The Social War (91-88 BC)

Other Italian cities envied Rome and desired a share in the wealth of the Empire. After the defeat of Carthage, Rome rather than sharing the wealth had adoopted that kept the other Italian cities from sharing in the new wealth. Those cities that had supported Hanibal were reduced to Roman colonies themselves. Tribune Marcus Livius Drusus attempted both to aleviate Roman poverity wuith agraian reform and corn laws and the offer of Roman citizens to other Italians, steps opposed by the conservative class which had no desire to share the wealth. Drusus was assasinated following the the methods used earlier on the Gracchus (91 BC). The Social War with other Italian city states erupts in 91 BC. The other Italian cities want a new Italian state based on the Roman constitution, in short citizenship and a share od the wealth. Rome defeated the Italians, but in the ended granted citizenshiop to them.

Civil War

The 1st century BC finds the two major parties in Rome ready for drastic action. Assasination is no longer sufficent to quell the popular party. The two major military commanders each champion one of the factions. Marius is the champion of the popular party. Sulla is favored the aristocracy.

Marius

Marius dominates Rome in the final decade of the 2nd century. He rules Rome through command of the army. Marius reorganizes the Army (104 BC). Marius and Sulla argue as to who shall command the Roman forces in a campaign against King Mithridates VI of Pontus. Sulla marches in Rome for the first time with the legions he commanded in the Social War. Violating Roman law, he enters Rome with his legions (88 BC). An aging Marius flees to Africa. Sulla executes Tribune Publius Sulpicius Rufus, the remaining spokesman of the popular party. With the opposition silenced, Sulla imposes arbitrary measures. He is also able to confirm his command of the expedition against King King Mithridates in the East. He leaves Rome in command of the expedition (87 BC). Cornelius Cinna a popular leader and enemy of Sulla tries to implement Sulpicius' reforms. He us drven from the city, but rallies legions in Campanis and is joined by Marius who returns from Africa. They enter Rome with their legions and Cinna and Marius is recognized as Counuls. They outlaw Sulla and conduct a vindictive massacre of senators and other patricans. Marius dies (86 BC), but Cinna continues to rule.

Sulla

A civil war occurs between the supporters of Marius and Sulla. Sulla returns from Asia with a huge army of 40,000 men and marches in Rome for a second time. (83 BC). Sulla emerges victorious and is appointed Dictator. He conducts a blood bath of anyone he preceives as an ememy (82-79 BC). He supresses his enemies by proscriotion, a list posted in the Forum identifying them as enemies of the state and outlaws. A young Julius Ceasar is related to Marius, but is not on the list. He wisely leaves Rome. A large number of Roman aristocrats associated with the populares were proscribed and their property confiscated. One source notes 520 men. Sulla strengthened the power of the Senate, weakened the power of the tribunes, and stopped the grain dole. Sulla often confiscates the land of his enremies and gives it to his veterans. Having no knowledge of agriculture, much of the and is mismanged or abandoned. This affects agriculural production, making Rome increasingly deoendant on imported grain. North Africa becomes the principal source of grain. Sulla dies (78 BC).

Spartacus (73-71 BC)

Spartucus led the greatest slave rebellion of ancient Rome. Spartacus was a born a free man in Thrace. Not much else is known about his early life. He may have served with the Roman army in Macedonia and as punishment for desertion, sold into slavery. We do know that he was trained as a gladiator in the school of Batiatus in Capua. Spartacus and about 75 other gladiators seize weapons and escape from the school. They hide on Mount Vesuvius outside of Naples. This was before the eruption and Vesuvius at the time was hreavily wooded. News of their presence leaks out and they are joined by an increasing number of runaways. Soon the area is beset by plunder and pillage as Spartacus has a hard time controlling the runaways. The Senate not understanding that this is a serious insurection, sends praetor, Claudius Glaber with an army of 3,000 poorly trained recruits. Spartacus routes them. Spartacus subsequently defeated two more Roman armies. He desired to lead his force across the Alps to escape Italy. The Gauls and Germans, led by Crixus, howevcer, were attracted by the rich plunder in Italy and objected. Spartacus by 72 BC had a force of aboutt 70,000 run away slaves. The Senate, beginning to realize the danger, sent the two consuls (L. Gellius Publicola and Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus), each with two legions, against the rebel slaves. The Gauls and Germans, separated from Spartacus' main force and were defeated by Publicola's legioins. Crixus was killed. Spartacus with his reamining force defeated first Lentulus and then Publicola. He avenges Crixus, by forcing 300 captured Roman prisoners to engage in gladatorial combat to the death with each other. Spartacus moves north and defeated an army under proconsul of Cisalpine Gaul at Mutina. There was now no Roman force between Spartacus and the Alps, but again the Gauls and Germans believing that Rome was theirs refused to leave Italy. Spartacus thus moves south, perhaps headed for Sicily. Spartacus now had about 120,000 escaped slaves. The Senate in desoeration turns to Marcus Licinius Crassus, a wealthy man, but from a plebeian family. He was associated with the popular faction. Crassus with a poweful army drives Spartus to thec toe of the Italian boot. A plan to escape to Sicily is betrayed by pirates. Spatacus tries to move north but is overwalmed by Crassus who is supported by the hardened forces commanded by Pompey who returns from Spain Marcus Licinius Lucullus who brings his legions from Macedonia. Spartucus is probablyb killed at a battle at near the Siler river. One historian reports that 6,000 slaves taken prisoner were crucified by Crassus along the Appian Way from Capua to Rome. [Gruen, pp. 19-21.]

Pompey

Pompey had served under Sulla. He engaged thec remnants of Marius' dsupporters in Africa, Sicly, and Spain. He and Crassus were elected consuls. They repealed some of the most unpopular laws of Sulla and restored the power of the tribunes. Julius Caesar and Pompey who are more concerned with the common Romans unite to seize control of the government, but in the process become rivals. Pompey and Crassus rule as consuls (70 BC). Pompey clears the Mediterranean of pirates and engages Mithridates in the Eastern Mediterrean (67-62 BC).

Cicero

Cicero becomes consul (63 BC). Cicero was the greatest Roman orator, but is noted today as a statesman and philosopher. He witnessed the decline and of his beloved Roman Republic, and struggles herocally, but unsucessfully to save it. As a statesman he is seen to have been more honest than effective. He was an important participant in the significant political events of his time. His writings are now a valuable source of information on the political events of the era. It is his writings, however, that have powerfully influenced Western Civilization--perhaps the greatest single voice.

The Catiline Conspiracy (63 BC)

Lucius Sergius Catalina (108?-62 BC) known as Catiline supported Sulla. After Sulla's death he becomes quaestor (77 BC) and praetor (68 BC). He seved as govenor of the province of Africa (67-66 BC). He was tried for extortion, but while the trial was in process attempted to kill the counsuls and seize control of Rome. This failed, but schemed to become counsul (63 BC). Cisero at this time becomes consul and exposes Cataline, delivering blistering orations in the Senate. Cato supports Cisero against Catline despite Caesar's disapproval. CIscero drives Cataline to open rebellion. Catline is proclaimed a punlic eneny and killed in battle (62 BC). Ciscero's denuncuatioins are cinsidered ckassics of retoric and often given as translation assignments in Latin classes.

Stuggle for Power

Julius Caesar rises in prominenence while Pompey is away from Rome fighting pirates and Mithridates. He He becomes the leader of the popular party. He presents himself as a supporter of the legacy of Mariius and Cinna. He argues that the children of those proscibed by Sulla should be given clemency. He wants Sulla's corrupt supporters arrested and judged,. He is elected Pontifex Maximus (63 BC). Pompey returns from the East in triumph and disbands his army (62 BC). Pompey asks the Senate to ratify measures taken in Asia and land for his veterans. There uis cobnsiderable opposition in the Senate to these requests. The First Triumvirate (Pompey, Crassus, and Caesar) governs Rome (60 BC). Ceasar not yet in command of an army, poses as Pompey's friend and supports his requests. In return Pompey supports Ceasar's request for command of an army. Ceasar campaigns in Gaul and defeats the major tibes in a ruthless campaign (58-50 BC). Ceasar's campaign in Gaul is incredibly ruthless, but places a Roman stamp on Gaul and plays aajor role in romanizing Western Europe. The great orator Cicero defies Ceasar. The second consulship of Pompey and Crassus occurs (55 BC). Pompey is awarded Spain and Africa and Crassus Syria. Caesar conducts the first invasion of Britain, but fails (55 BC). Ceasar's wife Julia dies (54 BC). Caesar invades Britain again (54 BC).

The Parthians

The Parthian decisively defeat a Roman army led by rassus forces at Carrhae in Mesopotamia (53 BC). Some 5,500 Romans are killed in the battle and 6,000 executed after surrendering. Crassus was also executed after the battle. The death of Crassus means that now Pomey and Ceasar are in direct competition for mastery of Rome.

Julius Ceasar (100-44 BC)

After Crassus was defeated and killed by the Parthians (53 BC), Pompey is elected as sole consul by the Senate (52 BC). Ciscero believes that Ceasar threatens th Republic and is intrumental in having him declared an enemy of the Roman Republic. The conservative Senate convinces Pompey to return to Rome and sees in him ts defender against Ceasar and the popular party. The Senate desired to end Ceasar's military command and prevent him from becoming consul. The Senate demands he disband his legions if he desires to be consul. Caesar still in Gaul marched south, famiously crossed the Rubicon and entered Rome in triumph (49 BC). Caesar and Pompey wage civil. Pompey and important aristocrats flee Rome and gather their forces in Greece. Ceasar and Pompey finally meet in battle at Pharsalus in Greece (48 BC). Pompey was defeated. He fled to Egypt where he is killed. Caesar pursuong Pomey encounters Ckeopatra. Ceasar then took effective control of the state from the Senate, but unlike previous military commanders Marius and Sulla, Ceasar did not conduct a reign of terror agaonst his enemies, There are neither proscriptions or confiscations. Ciscero was not arrested. Ceasar proceeded with economic and administrative reforms to end corruption and promote prosperity. Ceasar conducted a successful campaign in Spain against forces still loyal to Pompey. While in Spain, Ceasar was appointed Dictator and (46 BC). He renounced the post and was elected consul again. The remaining forces still loyal to Pompey were crushed at Munda in Spain. Ceasar is proclaimed dictator for life (45 BC). Republican nobels in the Senate led by Marcus Junius Brutus are convinced that Ceasar planned to end the Republic and declare himself king. To prevent this they assasinated Caesar in the Senate (44 BC).

Cleopatra

Cleopatra in Egypt became the joint ruler of Egypt with her brother (51 BC). Caesar campaigns in Egypt and Asia Minor. He meets Cleopatra in Egypt and helps install her in power. He has a child, Cesearion with Cleopatra. Aftere Ceasar's assasination, Cleopatra flees back to Egypt.

Second Triumvirate

Ciscero leads an attemopt to restore the Republic. Mark Anthony who had been appointed consul with Ceasar, however, commands 17 legions. Octavian returns to Rome intent on claiming his inheritance. He allies himself with Caesar's friends, Mark Antony and Lepidus. They proceed to overthrow the aristocrats responsible for killing Caesar. The Second Triumvirate (Antony, Lepidus, Octavian) rules Rome (43-33 BC). Octavian becomes First Consul (43). The Triumvirate proceeds to proscribe ans assisinate Ceasar's opponents. Ceasar had forgiven Cicero, but Octavian orders him executed (43 BC). Octavian and Mark Anthony support Caesar's deification. Octavian and Anthony defeat the Republican forces led by Brutis and Gaius Casius Longinus and Brutus at the battle of Philippi (42 BC). The Triumvers divide effective control of the Empire. Octavian takes Italy and the West. Anthony takes the East. Lepidus takes Africa. Octavian fights Sextus Pompeius (Pompey's son) for control of Sicily. He summons Lepidus for assistance. When Lepidus attempts to add Sicily to hus area of control, Octavian takes cointrol of his privince of Africa and his position on the Triumverate. Control of the Empire is now a struugle between Octavian in the West and Anthony in the East.

Mark Anthony

Antony meets Cleopatra and becomes enchanted by her (41 BC). Antony marries Octavia, Octavian's sister (40 BC). Octavian marries Livia (38 BC). Antony marries Cleopatra (37 BC). Octavian becomdes consul for the second time (33 BC). A rivalry develops between Octavian in the west and Mark Antony and his new easterm ally, Cleopatra. Antony divorces Octavia and publishes the terms of Antony's will to descredit him (32 BC).

Octavian

Octavian in command of Rome cleverly underminds Anthony's position. He in particular uses the affair with Cleopatra against him. Octavian become consul and war eupts between him and Anthony. Octavian is clever, but young and inexperienced in battle. His chief military commander is Marcus Agrippa who plays a key role in his victories.

Actium (31 BC)

Octavian's forces commanded by Marcus Agrippa defeated the combined forces of Anthony and Cleopatra at Actium (31 BC). The battle is one of the most significant in history. Had Anthony and Cleopatra pervailed, the character and dominant cultural influences of the Empire would have been shifted east. It will be the Greek ideals and the Republican laws of Rome that will be passed on to Western civilization rather than Asian despotism. Antony and Cleopatra commit suiside (30 BC). Octavian becomes tribune (30 BC). Octavian returns to Rome and receives a three-fold triumph.

Augustus and the Principate

Octavian's victory begins a period of Roman history, the Principate or Early Empire. The Senate and army bestow the name of Augustus and emperor "victorious general" upon Octavian. Augustus at first maintains the trapings of the Republic. Hecbecomes princeops or chief citizen, but holds effecrive authority iver tghe state. He is now known as Augustus or Ceasar Augustus. The Arch of Augustus in dedicated in the forum (29 BC). The Legislation of the Augustan Principate is issued (27 BC). Augustus build a palace on the Palatine (27 BC). Construction begins of the Pantheon and Baths of Agrippa (27 BC). Augustus changes his legal position. He resigns the consulship and is granted tribunician powers for life (23 BC). Under the new constitution, Augustus holds tribnitian power and the militaryt imperium, or ultimate authority. The Senate retained control of Roime, Italy, and the pacified provinces. The frontier provinces where legions were necessarywere governed by legati appointed by Augustus without confirmatiin by the Senate. Augustus concerned about licentiousness and declining moral standards issues the Julian Laws on marriage and morality (18 BC). He also attempted to revive ancirnt religious festivals. The Secular Games were initiated (17 BC). Augustus iniates massive building programs. He later exaults, "I found Rome a city of brivks and left a city of marble." Augustus adopts Gaius and Lucius Caesar (17 BC). Augustus becomes Pontifex Maximus (12 BC). Tiberius divorces Agrippina and marries Julia (11 BC). Augustus continues to revise his title, again becoming Consul. He is granted the title of Pater Patriae meaning father of the country (2 BC). The Forum of Augustus and of temple of Mars the Avenger is dedicated (2 BC). Augustus exiles his daughter Julia, hos only child, for gross imortality (2 BC).

Clothing

We have developed some information on Roman children's clothing, we do not at this time have any details as to stylistic changes over time. as far as we can tell, Children's clothing was remarably unchanged during the Roman era.

Sources

Gruen, Erich Gruen. The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (University of California Press, 1974).







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Created: August 15, 2003
Last updated: 6:41 AM 8/3/2012