The new European kings were not just warlords, but rulers annoited by God a responsible for preserving the Faith as well as the security of his subjects. The dual role invested the king with political, religious, and culture responsibilities. The Christinization of the British isles was achieved. Scotland was emerging in the north and the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were well established in the south. Pope Gregory authorized Boniface's quest to convert the Germans west of the Rhine (718). The process of assisimilation of Germanic conquers and Roman and other local populations was underway. Meamwhile Muslim armies threaten Christendom in the east and West. General Leo the Isaurian holds off a Muslim army attacking Constaninople by land and sea (718). The Byzantine Empire will continue as a citidel protecting the Christin Balkans from Islamic invaders. Leo becomes Leo III and begins a campaign against Icons, believing he can convert Jews and Muskims. The Arabs and Islam also swept west through Berber North Africa and cross the Straits of Gibralter to conquer almost all of Spain (711). Muslim armies cross the Pyranees and occupy Nimes in France, but are stopped at Tours by Charles the Hammar (732). Although not a huge battle, few military engagements had such profojnd conseuences. The fighting that becomes known as the Reconquista began on the Iberian Peninsula and will last for centuries. This end the period of major Muslin advances in the West. Major changes occur beyond Europe.
The great Mesoamerivcan city of Teotihuacan (Teotihuacán) in Mexico is destroyed and left in ruins (around 750). The Mayan civilization to the south also declines.
The Umayyad caliphs lost power in Bagdad. Thdey are overthrown by an army of mixed nationalities from Khurasan (east of Persia). The new caliph is Abu-Abbas al-Sarahbegins the rule of the Abbasid caliphs has begun. Pepin the Short, the son of Charles Martel, founds the Carolingians dynasty.
The saga of Beowulf was probably first written (8th century). The famed Book of Kells was made at the Kells monastery in Ireland (late-8th or early-9th century). Important technical inovations were reorted in agriculture. The heavy plow was developed in the Rhine valley. The horsecollar, never adopted by the Romans, appeared in northern Europe probably adopted from Asia (during the 8th or 9th century). We notice some schools organized by the Franks (8th century).
Navigate the Children in History Web Site:
[Introduction] [Biographies] [Chronology] [Climatology] [Clothing] [Disease and Health] [Economics] [Geography] [History] [Human Nature] [Law]
[Nationalism] [Presidents] [Religion] [Royalty] [Science] [Social Class]
[Bibliographies] [Contributions] [FAQs] [Glossaries] [Images] [Links] [Registration] [Tools]
[Children in History Home]
Navigate the CIH chronological pages:
[Return to the Main medieval century pages]
[Return to the Main chronology page]
[[Return to theThe medieval era]
[The 6th century] [The 7th century] [ [The 9th century] [The 10th century] [The 11th Century] [The 12th century] [The 13th century] [The 14th century] [The 15th century] [The 16th Century]