*** war and social upheaval: First World War I World War One country overviews

War and Social Upheaval: World War I--Country Overviews M-Z

World War I Russia
Figure 1.--This young Russian soldier is unidentified. We do not know enough about the uniform to tell much about him. Russian soldiers were poorly rquipped ans supported during the War. The Russian Army although ultimately unsuccessful, plyed a key role in the War. Russian offenses in the east, prevented the Germans from concentrating their forces in the west and defeating France and the onset of the War.

Here we will collect overviews of the experiences of individual countries in World War I. The central conlict was the tension between Germany and France. This time French diplomats were careful not to face Germany alone. In the end, Germany defeated Russia and destroyed the offensive capability of the French Army, but was defeated by the British and American Armies. The war in many ways was the central event of the 20th century and the consequences of the War affected much of the 20th century and have not yet fully played out. We do not yet have many extensive country entries here, but have begun to collect information. Here we have included notonly the belligerent countries, but also colonies and areas that were to emerge as independent countries after the War.


Just before the outbreak of World War I, Greece, Serbia, and Bulgaria ally and their forces with the help of some 100,000 Macedonians voluteers defeat the Turkish army in Macedonia, the last major Ottoman force in the Balkans. Disagreements over partition resulted in another war. Macedonia fails to achieve independence. Greece, Serbia, and Bulgaria in the Treaty of Bucharest partitions the country (August 1913). Despite the Macedonian participation, the victors takes step to suptrss Macedonial national identity. Greece takes the largest or southern half of Macedonia (Aegean Macedonia) and renames it to 'Northern Greece'. The Greek Army burns the town Kukush, the birthplace of the Macedonian leader Georgi (Goce) Delcev. Bulgaria annexed the Pirin region and attemots to formal refeences to Macedonia. Serbia annexed the Vardar region and renamed it 'Southern Serbia'. What is noe Macedonia, is primarily the region annexed by Serbia which became known as Vardar Macedonia. World War I erupts.as a result of Balkan conflict (1914). Bulgaria sided with the Central Powers while Serbia joins the Allies. Serbia resists an Austrian invasion, butbis fefeated when the Germans and Bulgarians emter the conflict. All of Srbianis ocerun and occupied, including the Serbian held pption of Macedonia (Vardar). The Central Powers are fefeated (1918). At the Paris Peace Conference, the demands of the Macedonians for independent and united Macedonia are rejected. The Treaty of Versailles recognized the 1913 partition of Macedonia. Vardar Macedonia is re-incorporated with the rest of Serbia and into the new Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (1922). It was later renamed Yugoslavia (1929).


Martinique in the years before World war I experienced a series of natural disasters. The volcano Mont Pelée destroyed the commercial capital of the colony, St. Pierre (1902). Almost all of its 29,000 inhabitants perished. The only survivors were a shoemaker and a prisoner who was saved because he was in a virtual dungein cell. The town had to be completely rebuilt and commercial activity shifted to Fort-de-France. This was followed by a devestating hurricane damaging the sugar crop (1903). A massive earthquake off nearby Saint Lucia did further damage (1906). The economy was auded by the massive U.S. effort to build the Panama Canal. More than 5,000 islanders found work there. As tensions mounted in Europe, France began to mobilize its colonie. France mandated compulsory military service in Martinque (1913). Martinique was assigned a quota of 1,100 men per year to send to France for training. Unlike World War II, Martiniue supported the French war effort throughout the War. Some 18,000 Martiniquans served in Frabce during the War and 1,306 died. French authorities requisitioned the Island's rum production for the French Army. Production doubled as sugar mills converted to distilleries, helping the local economy to revive from the series of naturl disasters. Martinique was not as importnt as a naval base as it woukd be in World War II. German U-boats had a muvh more limited range than would prove to be the case in World War II.


When the War broke out in Europe, the Mexican Revolution was underway. Venustiano Carranza with American assistance emerged as the new president (1914). He proceeded to but down insurections from both Zapata in the south and Villa in the north. After General Obregón won the Battle of Celaya (1915), Carranza was firmly in control. Villa who blamed the United States for his defeat retired to his northern stroinghold and began a series of raids into the Unitd States, The United States resonded with a punitive expedition that angered Mexican nationalists (1915-17). German Foreign Minister Zimmerman sent a diplomatic message to the Mexican Government (1917). As the British controlled the trans-Atlantic cables, they intercepted and decoded the message which became known as the Zimmerman Telegram. Germany offered Mexico lost territory in the southwest if Mexico would enter the War against America. It was an absurd ploy by the Germans. Mexico was not about to enter a war with America. The diplomatic gaffe, however, proved costly to the Germans. The telegram outraged Americans just as the Germans were resuming unrestricted submarine warfare. These two events brought America into the War. With America finally in the War against Germany, President Venustiano Carranza declared that his country would pursue a "strict and rigorous neutrality" as part of a statement with critical reference to the United States. Carranza was playing to Mexican nationalists who were anti-American. The impact was to sour influence with the Wilson Administration as well as rising suspicion that Mexico was pro-German. There were rumors in the American press that German money was backing Carranza and that he was a front for German interests. The Zimmerman telegram had firmly planted conspiracy theories associated with Mexico. Some Mexican newspapers were apparently subsidized by Germany. Carranza was assisted by the Wilson Administration in his struggle for power. He thus was sensitive to domestic critics who thought he might be too disposed to American interests. In doing so he impaired his relationship with the one country most important to Mexico. Oil was a potential problem. Britain depended heavily on Mexican oil imports for its Navy. Mexico's oil industry was centered at Tampico in the Gulf of Mexico. That area was controlled by a bandit named Pelaey. The oil companies paid him protection money. President Carranza threatened to send troops to arrest Pelaey. British oil executives were afraid that Pelaey might destroy the wells. The British were also concerned that President Carranza was considering on an embargo of oil exports.


Montenegro with a largely ethnic Serbian population was still a part of the declining Ottoman Empire at the turn-of-the 20th century. Knjaz Nikola proclaimed an independent kingdom in Cetinje (1910). He became Nikola I. The common ethnicity meant there were close ties with already indpendent Serbia. The Montenegrans joined Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria in the First Balkan War (1912). The vMontenegrans suffered substabtial casualties. The Balkan War formally secured Montenegro's independence from the Ottoman Empire. When Austria-Hungary attacked Serbia (August 1914). The small Montenegrin army fought with the Serbs. They helped occupy northern Kosovo which with the Cental Powers offensive (October 1915) provided an escape route for the Serbian Army. Montenegro like Serbia was over run and occupied by the Central Powers (January 1916). We do not have details on Austrian occupation at this time. Nikola I signed the Corfu Declaration (July 1917). It afirmed the unification of Montenegro with Serbia after the War. King Nichola was a strong believer of unification with Serbia to form a great Serbian state. after the Austrian evacuation (October 1918) and the King's return to liberated Montenegro, he proclaimed unificatiion with Serbia (November 1918). King Nicola quarled with King Alexander of Serbia over who should be the monarch of a united Serbia. King Alexander with a much larger army was able to engineer the dethroning and exiled of Nicola.


Moroccan crises preceeded World War I. At the heart of these crises was Morocco's strategic location, Morocco wasd one of the few areas of Africa yet to be colonized, largely because none of the great powers wanted it in the hands of their rivals. Morocco like Spain and Gibraltar was situated at the entrance to the Mediterranean and thus of considerable strategic importance. There was also mineral and agricultural weakth. Any one of the Moroccan cries could have set off World War I. The First Moroccan Crisis (1905) reflect Germanu's arrivl late in the colonial competition. These imperialist confrontations were one of various indicents that could have set off the War. It showed Kaiser Wilhelm's reckless willingness to use war or the threat of war in European relations. Morocco became a protectorate of Spain and France just before the War (1912). At the time, Morocco was surrounded by French West Africacto the south and French-controlled Algeria to the east. Morocco was thus aligned with the Allies during the War. Moroccan regiments fought as part of the French Armée d'Afrique on the Western Front. We can not find much information about them. We believe that they were all volunteers. We are not sure why Moroccans would have volunteered to fight in the French army during the War. Pay may have been a factor. Moroccan Goumiers were auxilleries to the French forces in Morrocco and elsewhere in Africa. The Goumiers enabled General Hubert Lyautey to withdraw an important portion of the regular French military forces from Morocco for deployment on the Wesrern Front. They remained separate from the Armée d'Afrique. Moroccan soldiers fought alongside U.S. Marines at some of the major engagements of the war winning Allied Hundred Days Campaign, including Chateau Thierry, Mont Blanc and Soissons (1918). One estimates places Moroccan war deaths at 6,000 men.


Mozambique at the time of World War I was a Portuguese colony south of German East Africa. The Germans and British with largely African armies fought a protracted campaign all over East Africa. Even thouh cut off from Germany and resupply, the Germans remained in the field for 3 years, fighting a series of battles and gueriila campaigns. Eventually they retreated into the remote jungles of Mozambique (November 1917). The Portuguese had joined the Allies, but had only a small colonial pooice force in Mozambique. The Germans existed on supplies seized from the Portuguese until the end of the War. The British declined to launch a major campaign into the Mozambique jungles to root them out.

(The) Netherlands

The Dutch were neutral during World War I. Neither the Allies or the Germans occupied the Netherlands. The German invasion launching the war was directed at neighboring Belgium to the south. Belgian civilians and soldiers sought reguge in the Netherlands. The Dutch as a trading nation, however, were significantly affected by the Allied naval blockade. The Allies were concerned that the Germans might obtain goods and supplies through Dutch ports. The Allies thus carefully regulated Dutch trade and put them under strict quotas. The Netherlands Trust was established to administer the Allied quotas regulating Dutch imports through the blockade. The Allies even attempted to prevent Dutch trade with Germany, but were unsuccessful. It is less clear why the Germans did not occupy the Netherlands. The German offensive launching the war did not need to pass through the Netherlands. The port of Rotterdam was important to Germany, but rendered useless by the Allied naval blockade. In part because of the allied blockade there was considerable sympathy in the Netherlands for the Germans during World War I. Ethnic and commercial ties were also factors. The Dutch offered asylum to the Kaiser at the end of the War and refused to turn him over to the Allies for trial. After the war, the Dutch supported charities offering relief to children in both Germany and Austria.

New Zealand

New Zealand found itself at war when the British declared war on Germany (August 1914). It all happened automatically without an real consideration of constitutional issues. NewZealand at the time of the war was a very small country of only 1.1 million people. By itself, New Zealand could not make a major contribution, but the Dominions together along with the rest of the Empire did make a substantial contribution. There was a strong feeling at the time that they were overseas Englismen. A separate New Zealand national identity was not yt strongly felt. The term 'Home Country' was widely used. New Zealanders did not begin to think about this until after the War. Many volunteered to support the British. More than 100,000 New Zealanders went overseas, and over half were killed or wounded--a very hog rate, For most New Zealanders, it was the first time they went abroad. Ordinary people at the time did not travel overseas. That was something for the wealthy. For most of the Kiwis, it was the first time they traveled away from home. Many saw it as a great adventure. Virtutally no one understood what war was. The reality of war was very different. Seeing other coutries and other people for the first time, New Zealanders began to become aware of of their own individual identity. And in combat they began to compare themselves with the Germans and their Allies--especially the British. In battle, they were able to compare themselves with men from other nations. This seems to have been the turning point in New Zealand's emergence as an independent nation. Out of this, many have argued, came a sense of a separate identity, The term 'Kiwi' was populrized during the War when New Zealand soldiers began to call themselves ‘Kiwis’. New Zealand first action was to occupy German Samoa (subsequently Western Samoa) (August 30, 1914). The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZACs) landed at Anzac Cove on the Gallipoli Peninsula in an effort to open a supply route to the Russians (April 1915). It was a plan conceived by Churchill and if it had worked would have had a huge impact on the War. Several months of hard fighting, however, failed to dislodge the Ottomans and the ANZACs with drew after taking heavy casualties (December 1915). Battlefield casualties required more and more men to be fed into the caulderon of the War. The Goverment instituted conscription which became a controversial political issue. New Zealand eventually deployed 103,000 soldiers overseas. World War I was the first major military operation which both Australia and New Zealand fought, often considered their "baptism of fire" as new states. One New Zeland hitorian who fought in Gallipoli and the Western Front writes, ‘somewhere between the landing at Anzac and the end of the battle of the Somme, New Zealand very definitely became a nation’. [Burton, p. 138.] ANZAC Day is the most important national holiday in both Australia and New Zealand.


A few Germans migrated to Nicaragua, many farmers given land by the Governmnt. They mostly settled in northern Nicaragua (mid-19th century). A few moved on to Costa Rica. Many of the families while learning Spanish, continued speaking Spanish as well. The growing American economy expanded investments in Central Americ, especially after construction of the Panama Canal bgan and this included Nicaragua. As in other countries, the primary political dynamic was between conservatives and liberals. Liberal Preident José Santos Zelaya executed 500 revolutionaries including two Americans (1909). Zelaya was interested in building another interoceanic canal with European powers. This was noted with concern in Washington, especially when German interets showed some interest. Another revolution broke out against President Adolfo Diaz. When he was unable to guarantee the safety of Americn lives and property, heasked for American protection. Presiudent Taft sent in the Marines (1912). The Government thus was strongly influenced by the United Stateses, creating a de facto protectorates. The United States pursued what has become known as Dollar Diplomacy. A treaty consolidated an American protectorate (1914). The Bryan-Chamorro Treaty, also known as the Canal Treaty, negotiated by the Wilson Administration gave the United States exclusive rights in any canal project. Construction of the Panama Canal was completed in the same year. While not becoming involved in actual administration, the United States promoted important juridical and institutional reforms. The National Congress and a free press continued to function. Most importantly the United States assumed the fiscal, budget, and banking functions. Nicaragua declared its neutrality after World war I broke out in Europe (1914). Nicaragua's public finances, like much of the refion were in a chaotic state. The resulting financial plan of 1917 was designed to prevent new moratoriums in foreign debt repayment. The United Sates after the Germans resumed unrestricted submarine warfare declared war on Germany (April 1917). President Emiliano Chamorro after the United States declared war, broke relations with Germany (May 1917). A year Nicaragua declared war on Germany and the Central Powers (May 1918). Given the American presence, these actions were not entirely independent decesions. Nicaragua did not participate in the War, but the country's diplomatic break with Germany and subsequent declaration of war was criticized by many Nicaraguans, including nationalists, liberals and opponents within the Chamorro government. The issued was raised in the National Congress and debated in newspapes like La Tribuna. Liberals charged conservatives with a lack of national who asked for Americanintervention and signed the Canal Treaty. While not involved in the fighting, the War had important commercial and economic consequences for Nicaragua.


Norway declared its independence from after a referendum (1905). This was a reflection of the rising nationalism in Europe. The kings of the three Scandinavian countries met in Malmö to make a joint declaration of absolute neutrality (December 1914). Norway like the other Scndinavian countriesc remained neutral in World War I. The Royal family had ties to the British royal family, but there was some public sympathy for the Germans. Norway being the most westerly Scandinavian countr with a North Sea coast was most exposed to the War. Norway was an important maritime nation and its shipping industry was heavily damaged.

Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire which was heavily courted by Germany had been hard-pressed by Russia saw the opportunity to win back lost territory and joined the Central Powers. The Ottomans entered the War after the Western Front had settled down to static trench warfare, but the Germans had achieved major victories against the Russians on the Eastern Front. The Ottomons declared war on Russia on October 29, 1914. The first operation was a combined German-Turkish bombardment of Russian Black Sea ports. Russia and Britain and France quickly declared war on Turkey (November 2-5). The first Ottoman offensive was aimed at the Russian Caucauses (December). After initial successes, the Russiand retook much lost ground (August 1915). Russian pleas for assistance was one of the factors leading to the dusastrous Allied offensive at Galipoli (February 15). The Turkish forces at Galipoli were commanded by Mustafa Kemal who later as Kemal Attaturk was to found the Turkish Republic. After heavy losses of both ships and men, the Allies withdrew (December 1915). Beritish Indian forces launched an offensive against Turkish held Mesopotamia (late 1914). The campaign there seasawed Back and forth (1915). A British Army was destoyed, but the British finally took Bagdad and moved into northern Mesopotamia. The campaign in Egypt and Palesine began with an Ottoman attack on Suez. The Brirish struck back and finally took Jerusalem. The Arab Revolt further undercut the Ottoman poition. The final British offensive destoyed three Ottoman armies. The Ottomans with their armies being destroyed in the field agreed to an armistice on Mudros, endng the fighting. After four centuries of dominating the Balkans and the Middle East, the Ottoman Empire collapsed.


Panama came into existence because President Theodore Roosevelt who wanted to build a canal prevented Colombia from supressing a Panamania revolt (1903). The country's primary importance in the world econnmy was the Pamama Canal opened a few days after the outbraek of the War (August 1914). The Cnal was within Panmania Territory, but controlled by the Panama Can Zone which was essentially U.S. territory. Both the Allies and Central Powers could use the Canal, but because the Allies blockaed the CentrlmPowers, essentially only the Allies had access to the Canal. The Panamanian Government complained that British and Japanese colliers were violating the coutry's neutrality. Panamanin President Ramon Valdez, after the United States declaed war on Germany, severed diplomatic relations with Germany, expelling the German consuls. He warned Germans in the country that if any plots to sabatog the Canal were uncvered, he would inter Germans residents.


World War I broke out in Europe (August 1914). Palestine at the beginning of the War was a part of the Ottoman Empire. The population was largely Arab with some Jewish settlements as a result of the European Zionist movement. The Germans sought to bring the declining Ottoman Empire into the War to draw Russian and British resources from the two main fronts of the War. The Ottomans joined the Central Powers (October 1914). They had suffered significan territorial losses in the Balkans and the Caucauses at the hands of the Russians and saw allying themselves with the Germans was one way of regaining lost territory from the beleagered Russians. The War quickly turned into a disaster when the Ottoman army invading the Russian Causcasses was decisively defeated. The Ottomons launched an offensive from Palestine soon after entering the War (November 1914). They crossed the Sinai and at some locations reached the Suez Canal, but were beaten back by the British. The British encoraged an Arab Revolt in Arabia which developed into a major threat to the Ottomans. The Arab Revolt assisted by T.E. Lawrence helped weakened the Ottomon position in Arabia and Palestine. Palestine turned from an Ottoman backwater into the frontline of World war I. The British made commitments to the Arabs about an independent Arab state after the War. They made condflictging commitments to their French ally. Zionists were initially split by the War. There were Zionists in all the major beligerant powers. The Balfour Declaration would largely change this. Thr British mounted a major offensive Against the Ottomans in Palestine. The British Egyptian Expeditionary Force commanded by Field Marshall Edmund Allenby af first made little progress against the Ottomons. The British finally took Jerusalem (December 1917). Australian Light Cavalry played an important role. The Ottomon Army in the Levant was was finally broken at the Battle of Megiddo (September 1918). The British with the Arab Army on its right then moved to seize Damascus. The British during the War made conflicting commitments to the Arabs, Zionists, and even the French. The result was that after the War they found maintaing order in the Palestine Mandate a very difficult under takibng. The Palestinian Arabs were unwilling to participate in Mandate institutions.


Paraguay had been devestated by wars with its neighbors and was one ofthe poorest countries in the hemisphere. It was a landlocked country without a merchant marine and with only limited foreign trade. It was lottle affected by the War and took little interest in it. The country remained neutral throughout the War. The ruling elite was generally pro-Alled. The Government announced that it would generally follow United States' policies.


Both Peru and Bolivia broke relations with Germany. The two countries had fought Chile in the War of the Pacific (1879) and lost territory to that country. Both countries hoped that supporting U.S. policy might gain support for their claims to lost territory. This did not occur, but Peru benefitted economically from the War. Peru substantially increased copper, cotton, rubber, oil and guano production to supply war orders. The engendered a short burst of prosperity that lasted while the War continued. A German U-boat sunk the Peruvian ship Lorton off Spain (February 1917). Germany refused to pay repriations. Peruvians were insulted that the Germans had offered Argentina compensation in similar circumstances. The implicatin was that the Germans did not see Peru imprtant enoough with which to bother. The Peruvian Congress voted to break relations with Germany. An indication of the public outrage was the 105-6 vote. The Government seized nine German ships, but not before the crews had disabled them. Peru's main contributions to the Allies were the mineral and other raw material exports. There were fund raisingdrives for the Red Cross. ThePeruvian Navy patrolled the west coast of South America forGerman U-boats and surface raiders.


The Polish nation once the most powerful in Europe disappeared as a result of three partitions in the 18th century carried out by Austria, Prussia, and Russia with the major share and Warsaw going to Russia. The Poles resisted these empires and in reaction the Russians in particular set out to destroy Polish national identity and Russify the Poles. Polish nationalism was largely preserved by the nobility and the Church. The Polish peasantry was largely a political. Although there was no Polish state, Poles participated in the War as part of the armies of the three empires that had partioned the country. About 2.0 millions participated in the War. Nearly 0.5 million were killed. Polish nationalists were divided in the conflict. Many right-wing Poles led by Roman Dmowski's National Democrats promoted the Allied cause which on the Eastern Front meant the Russians. Dmowski thought that a grateful Russia might agree to autonomy for Poland, perhaps even independence in the future. Josef Pilsudski led the Polish Socialists. He also commanded the Polish Legion in the Austrian Army. He thought that Russia might be knocked out of the War. Austria which had gained Galicia in the partition had been the most willing to allow a measure of Polish autonomy. The poor performance of the Austrian Army on the Eastern Front resulted the Germans assuming command. Marshal Pilsudski refused to take an an oath of allegiance to the Kaiser. German authorities arrested him and imprisoned him in Magdenburg Castle. Russian collapse changed the political situation in the East. America had joined the war. President Wilson promoted the 14 Points wgich included national self determination. With Russia no longer in the war Britain and France came out for Polish self-determination. Although the Germans had achieved their goals in the East reverses in the West changed the political landscape. Revolts broke out in German cities. The Kaiser abdigated and fled to Holland. German authorities released Pilsudski Magdenburg (November 10, 1918). He immeditely headed for Warsaw. He arrived there on the same day the Armistice on the Western Front went into effect (November 11). The Germans had set up a Regency Council in Warsaw. Understanding that a Polish national rising was about to take place, the Regency Council turned to Marshal Pilsudski. The German garrison in Warsaw chose to evacuate by train. The Allies recognized the new Polish state set up by Pilsudski. At Versilles the Poles demanded the boundaries of Poland before the 18th century partitions. The boundaries of the new Polish nation were only established by diplomacy and military engagements (1919-21). Inter-war Poland included a German minority in the west and eastern areas where Lithuanians, White Russians, and Ukranians outnimbered Poles.


Portugal sided with its traditional ally the the British in World War I. The Portuguese Army even before the War began fought border skirmishes with German troops in East Africa. Portuguese East Africa (Mozambique) bordered with German East Africa. German agents attempted to incite tribes in Angola which bordered on the German colony Southeast Africa (Naminia). The Royal Navy's command of the Seas, however, made German operations in Africa impossible. The Portuguese Parliament declared its support for the Allies (August 7, 1914). While supporting the Allies, Portugal did not actually enter the War for 2 years. The Portuguese Government seized German ships in its harbours (February 1916). Germany responded with a declaration of war. After formally entering the war, Portugal contributed forces to the Western Front. About 100,000 Portuguese troops fought in the War, both on the Western Front and in Mozambique.


Romania was one of the new European countries carved out of the Ottoman Empire. The boundaries were quite different than modern Romania. The country was ruled by a German monarchy. Romania at the time of World War I had three main provinces (Valachia, Moldovia, and the Dobrudja). The first two of these provinces had a largely homogenious population of ethnic Romanians, speaking Romanian and the Orthodox faith. The Dobrudja was, howver, ethnically diverse. As a result of Ottomon rule, there were Muslim Turks as well as various neighboring national groups. Ethnic Romanians were a minority. There were also Romanian minorities in neighboring countries. To the east was Bessarabia (between the Pruth and Dnjestr Rivers). This was once the the eastern half of the principality of Moldovia. Russia acquired the area from the Turks (1812). Other Romanians lived in Southern Bukovina (an Austrian province) and Transylvania (an Hungarian province). Similar circumstances involved all the Balkan states. Romanian nationalists as did nationalists in other countries desired an expanded state emcompassing all the territories with important Romanian populations. Such irredentist desires had fueled the Balkan Wars that preseeded World war I. Romania at first declared itself neutral. The country finally decided to enter the war on the Allied side (August 1916). Given the weakening situation on the Eastern front this seems an unwise decession. Initially the Romanian Army scored some success. The Romanians attacked Hungarian Transylvania and occupied much of it. The Central Powers launched a counter-offensive made up of both German and Austrian-Hungarian forces (September) The Central Powers suceeded in occupying much of Romania, including all of Valachia and a major proprtion of Moldovia (late 1916). Bulgarian forces pressed forward into the Dobrudja. The Romanians managed to stop the Central Powers offensive and set up a defensive perimiter around the area of Romania they still controlled. Revolution occurred in Russia and the Russians finally quit the War (1917). This freed up forces for the Central Powers. As a result of the Revolution in Russia, the Tsarist Empire began to desintegrate. Bessarabia as a result of the substantial Romanian ethnic population voted to join Romania (April 9, 1918). The Central Powers soon afterwards launched their spring offensive and succeeded in occupying all of Romania, including Bessarabia. The defeated Romanians were forced to sign the Treaty of Bucharest (May 7, 1918). The Germans were later to complain bitterly about the harsh conditions in the Versailles Treaty. Rarely mentioned were the very severe treaties they forced on the Romanians and Russians. The Allied victory in the West, however rescued the Romanians. The Treaty of Bucharest was declared null and void under the conditions of the Armistice (November 11).


Imperial Russia used pan-Slavism much as the Soviets used Communism. Thus when the Austro-Hungarians sought to punish Serbia, Russia came to its defence. This involved Germany becaise the Austrians had treaty ties to the Germans. Russia had the largest army in the world and with its huge population had the capability to mobilze an immense force. The Russian army, however, was not as well trained or equipped as the Germans. And mobilization would take condiserble time. Bismarck had maintained treaties with the Russians, but as a result of Kaiser Wilhelm II's disatrous diplomacy, the Russians had signed a treaty with the French placing the Germans in the position of fighting a two-front war. The Russians developed two war plans known as Plan G and Plan A (also called plan 19). The Russians saw two possible alternatives. Plan G entailed a massive German invasion. The reponse was the traditional Russian strategy of sacrificing lborder territory and withdrawing into the vastness of Russia buying time to mobilize a huge conscript force. Thus using this force, the German army with streached supplie lines and facing the severe Winter weather could be defeated like Napoleon. The Germans of course chose the other alternative, they concentrated the bulk of their force in a massive western offensive, striking France through Belgium. Thus the other Russian war plan, PLan A (19) came into force. The initial Russian version of Plan A theorized the German attack west and called for only minor Russian actions in the East. The French pressured the Russians to adopt a more aggressive strategy. The modified version of Plan A is known as Plan 19. General Danilov conceived of Plan 19 (1910). It was further modified in 1912. It involved a Russian offensive drive into East Prussia and Silesia to prevent the Germans from focusing its forces on France. This was precisely what occurred. The Germans had to withdraw forces from the West. This enabled the French to stop the Germans at the Marne. The German forces under Hindenburg and Ludendorf to devistate the Russians at Tannenberg and then the First and Second Battles of the Masurian Lakes.

(El) Salvador

El Salvador remained neutral during World War I. The Government offered offered the United States use of its ports after America declared war on Germany (April 1917). President Carlos Melendez explained that this was a form of 'friendly neutrality'.

Saudi Arabia

The Ottomons attempted to make the War an Islamic jihad, but the the Sherif of Mecca saw it as an opportunity to persue independence. The Ottomons attacked the British through the Sinani to take the Suez Canal and Egypt, but failed. The Arab revolt in the Hejaz broke out, surprising the Ottomans (June 5, 1916). British and French agents played a major role in inducung the Arab rising. The Arab Revolt, led chiefly by Col. T.E. Lawrence, Emir Faisal, and his father Sherif Hussein, 'King of the Hejaz'. This was the Hashomites. The Ottomon position was weakened by Arab Revolt, especially hen the Arab Army took Aqaba. The Arabs took control of Arabia cutting rail lines. Isolated Ottoman garrisons were besieged throughout the Peninsula. The Ottomans hard pressed by the British in Palestine were unable to deal with the Arab Revolt. The British at first made only limited headway in attacking the Ottomons in Gaza. Energized by a new commander, Field Marshall Edmund Allenby. the British finally took Jerusalem (November 1917). The Arab Revolt broke out in full force (January-September 1918). We tabel the cuntry Saudi Arabia because thatr is the modern kingdom. Actully the Saudis sid not seize control from Feisel and the Hasahimites until after the War (1923).


Senegal of all of France's colonies played an important role in the War. The French Army was fortified with the manpower of its colonies which contributed nearly 0.5 million men, helping to narrow the German manpower advantage. The most important part of what became known as the Force Noire was the Senegalese Tirailleurs. At the time of World War I they were aellestablished corps of colonial infantry in the French Army. They were first recruited from Senegal in French West Africa. Eventually they were recruited in other French African colonies. The term tirailleur translates variously as 'skirmisher' or 'sharpshooter', but was more of a generl term for colonial rifleman or infantry soldier. Although recruitment was not limited to Senegal, the Tirailleurs units took on the permannt adjective "sénégalais" since that was where the first black African Tirailleur regiment the French formed. The French first formed a Senegalese Tirailleur unit as they began colonize sub-Saharan colonies (1857). They served not only as a colonial security force, but used by the French in a number of wars, including World War I. The Force Noire was raised in West Africa, especially in Senegal. Blacks from Sub-Saharan Africa contrinuted over 0.21 million men. The diference in climate exposed these men to European diseases and they died in higher numbers due to illness after deployment to the Western Front. Over half of the Fotce Noir (0.14 million) merre committed to Europe, primrily the western Froint. About 30,000 of these men were killed. Other Tirailleur regiments were raised in French North Africa from the Arab and Berber populations of Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco. They were variously killed Tirailleurs nord-africains or Turcos. Tirailleur regiments were also raised in Indochina, they were called Vietnamese, Tonkinese or Annamites Tirailleurs. French military policy towards the use of African troops in Europe changed out of necesity after the first few months of combat in World War I. The French high command realized that the War was not going to a short war of movement, but arotracted war of attrition (1915). As aesult, France launched a major recruitment drive, focusing on West Africa. They evebtually raised 93 Senegalese battalions (1915-18). Of these 42 were commited to the Western Front in France. The French practive was combine battalions of white Colonial Infantry and African Tirailleurs into mixed 'regiments de marche'. The Frenbch found that the harsh conditions of trench warfarem especially during the winter, has a dispropriate impact on the un-acclimatized African soldiers. Si the French began withdrawing them to the south of France for training and re-equipping each winter. The arrangementyieldd benefits. The Force Noir suffere heavy losses in almost every major battle of the Western Front, few of which ere fouhght duriung the winter. Despite the losses, the discipline and morale of the Force Noir never waivered throughout the War. Another 0.18 men Africans and Indiochina provided labor needed by the war-time economy. Colonial troops, especially the Tirailleurs Senegalis also helped maintain French control of Indochina and Morocco. After the war they were used in the occupation of the Rhineland which the Germans considered to be a great insult. This lead to what the Germans called the Rhineland Bastards which the NAZIs picked up on in their rise to power.


It was Serbian terrorism that actually precipitated World War I although many other forces were at wirk that led to the War. Austria-Hungary's annexation of Bosnia (1908) has intendified ethnic tensions in the Balkans. Serbian nationalists assassinatied Archduke Francis Ferdinand (June 28, 1914). There is no evidence that the Serbian government was directtly responsible, although Government officials did support terroist groups. Austro-Hungarian officials were concerned with the rising demands of Slavic national groups and decided that reducing Serbia which had made substantial gains in the Balkan Wars (1912-13) would help to control the Slavs and Pan-Slavism. Austria issued a an ultimatum with a list of demands (July 23). Serbia wished to avoid the War. The Serbs were exhausted by the two Balkan Wars. War with the much larger Austria-Hungary Army was a ausome threat. The Serbian Government thus accepted all of the Austrian demands, except the demand for Austrian officials to participate in Serbian courts. The Serbs held out as a result of Russian pledges to support Serbia in case of Austrian attack. The Germans supported the Austrians rejected efforts by the British (Sir Edward Grey) to negotiate. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia (July 28). Russian mobilization resulted in a German ultimatum (July 31). When the Russians continued to mobilize, the Germans declared war on Russia (August 1) and on France (August 3). Thus launching World War I. The Serbian war plan was to rapidly double the size of the army from 5 to 10 divisions. Unlike Austria-Hungary, the small Serbian Army was battle tested, having participated in a series of Balkan wars. Although the War began in the Balkans, the campaign there is the least reported campaign of World war I. Austria began the campaign by launching three offensives against Serbia (1914). The Central Powers convinved the Bulgarians to enter the War by offering territory that the Serbs had gained in the Balkan wars (September 6, 1915). The Austro-German forces attacked across the Danube (October 6). The Bulgars in the south, into eastern Serbia (October 11) and into Macedonia (October 14). The western Allies attempted to assist Serbia. Greece was neutral, but Prime Minister Eleuthérios Venizélos favored the Allies and made the port of Salonika available. The Allies diverted troops from the Gallipoli campaign. Commanded by French General Maurice Sarrail the Allied troops arrived at Salonika (October 5). Nevertheless the Allies pressed forward north up the Vardar into Serbian Macedonia. Bulgar forces, however, prevented them from linking up with the Serbs. The Allied forced fell back to Salonika (mid-December 1915. The Serbian Army facing destruction executed a terrible winter retreat west over the Albanian mountains. They were accompanied by the King and many civilians. They sought refuge on the island of Corfu. Allied naval power made it impossible for the Astrian-German forces attack them. This meant, however, that Serbia was finally occupied by the Central Powers. The Allies planned a new offensive. The Allies forces at Salonika were reinforced by the Serb Army transported from Corfu and more British and French troops as well as some Russians. What followed was a sea-saw battle with the Bulgars in Macedonia. The Allies were eventually reinforced by the Greek Army when Greece enter the War (June 1917). Greek and Serbian troops eventually proved decisive in breaking the Bulgar lines. This then opened up the liberation of Serbia.

South Africa

The Union of South Africa when war broke out in Europe as part of the British Empire joined the Allied war effort against Germany and the Central Powers. South Africa was immediately affected because of neigboring German colonies, especially Southwest Africa (modern Namibia). Prime Minister Louis Botha and ??? Defence Minister of South Africa joined in significant military operations against the Germans. Many Afrikaners (South Africans of Dutch ancestry) were stidently anti-British because if the Boer War. Even so, the Afrikaner-led government of Louis Botha immediately supported the British. South Africans thus fought with the British in the War. The British were thus abel to withdrawal most of the British Army units so that they coild be redeployed to France. The South African Government itself launched an invasion of German Southwest Africa. At this point, some units of the South African army refused to obey orders and fight the Germans. They staged a revolt. The Government declared martial law (October 14, 1914). Loyal forces of General Louis Botha and Jan Smuts managed to supress Maritz Rebellion. The Government dealt with them leniently. With the rebelion put down, The South Africans invaded and seized control German Southwest Africa (modern Namibia). Next South Africa forces commanded by General Jan Smuts invaded German East Africa (modern Tanzania). The goal was to seize the colony. German General von Lettow-Vorbeck fought an elusive guerrilla campaign. Lettow-Vorbeck eventually had to withdraw to Mozambique where he finally surrendered after the Armistice in Europe. The 1st South African Brigade was deployed in France. South Africans were also deployed in the Cape Corps which made up part of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force in Palestine.

(German) Southwest Africa

World War I campe as a surprise to most Europeans. It was not a foregone conclusion that Britain wound eter the War. The German invasion of Belgium settled the issue. Africa was an area where Germany anbd Britain had a common border. And Dominion/Colonal officials were perhaps more aware of the potential for conflict than the Bitish Governmnt. And unlike the German Army on the conntinent, the Royal Navy put the German colonial armies at a serious disadvantage. Immediately after the German invasion of Belgium and British declaation of war (August 1914) Prime Minister Louis Botha informed the British Government that South Africa could and would defend itself. Because of the Boer War (1899-1902), there were more substantial Imperial forcs in South africa than was the case for most othr Dominions. Botha advised the British Government that the Imperial Garrison could safely be redeployed in France. Southwest Africa had the largest German population of all the country's colonies. Even so tge European population in South Arica was much greater. The British Government then asked Botha if his forces could invade German South-West Africa. Botha replied that that they could and would. South Africa mobilised troops along the northwestern border with Southwest Africa (Septenbr 1914). General Henry Lukin and Lt Col Manie Maritz were placed in command. The first major action was seizing the port of Lüderitz in southern Southwest Africa. The Germans had supported the Boers during the Boer War. As a result there was sympathy among the South African Boer population for the Germans. This was probably more anti-British than pro-German sentiment. A largely South African force invaded and seized the colony (1915). The military action was completed much more quickly than the comparable action in German East Africa. After World War I in the Versailles Peace Treaty, Southwest Africa became a League of Nations Mandate to be administered by South Africa (1919). The colony became independent as Namibia (1990).


Spain at the turn of the 20th century had the reputation as a backward unstable country. The Spanish-American War (1899 had exposed Spain's military weakness. As a result neither of the two military alliance systems extended a real effort to obtain Spanish adherence. Prime Minister Dato declared Spanish neutrality when the war broke out. Public opinio was split. The leftist groups generally pro-French. Conservatives generally favored the Germans. I am not sure if they were really pro-German or were reacted to the pro-French, anti-clerical feeling among left-wing groups. Some Spanish companies benefitted by expanding export demand. The Allied blockade cut Spain off from German markets, but shipments were possible to Britain and France. The country was adversely affected by reduced imports. This adversely affected the underprivileged. War profiteers in particular pushed up grain prices. Radical gains in Catalonia (Catalonian Lliga Regionalista) destabalized the political system. Rising prices as well as news from Russia led to strikes. King Alfonso XIII declared his support for Germany (1917). This caused widespread disorder and strikes. Prime minister Count Romanones resigned. A General Parlimentary Assembly met in Barcelona to consider major constitutional reforms (1917). Conservative elements and the army objected to the Assembly. A general strike failed (Summer 1917). The Army and conservative elements became increasingly popular. A group of army officers fearing civil war demanded that a cabinet be appointed that would support constitutional reform (October 1917). This began a period of significant reform in Spain that was not decisively interupted until the Spanish Civil War (1936).


Sudan at the time of World War I was an Anglo-Egyptian Condiminium. The recritment of African males led to agricuktural shortages in Sudan, Ethiopia, and northeast Africa. Some sources decribe famine conditions.


Sweden had been a major Baltic Power. The growing power of Russia and Prussia, however meant that Swedrn by the mid-19th century could not hope to compete miilitarily with either power. This and the gradual liberal reforms transforming the country into a democracy all led o growing support for neutrality as a mational policy. And German unification had created a major power beining pece to the Baltic for more thn 40 years. The growth of Socialism in Sweden created more support fior moth neutrality and pacifism. Political divisions tended to fall along thge same fault line as political divisions. Conservatives sympathiesed with Germany. Liberals had more mixed sympathies. The Social Democrats were a third less importat political party. They tended to be both anti-militarist and pacifist. Swedish neutralism was reinforced when both Denmark and Norway chose to remainneutral. The kings of the three Scandinavian countries met in Malmö to make a joint declaration of absolute neutrality (December 1914). While neutral, the Swedish public had considerable sympathy for the Germans. Here there were both cultural and kniship ties, although there were also trade ties with Britain and France. While cneutrality dominated the public debate, King Gustaf was pro-German. Families toes were importat. Both his mother and wude, Queen Victoria, were Germans. Many conservatives lso strongly supported the Germans. Some even advocated entering the War on the German side. He delivered a speech written by explorer Sven Hedin which seem to favor entering the war on Germany’s side (February 6, 1915). Public opinion hekd them back. Even so, the government's policy had a clearly pro-German bias. The Swedish public, however, had no desire to enter the War and thus Sweden remained neutral. Sweden had significant trade links with Germany. Sweden in particular shipped iron ore to Germany which supported the Grman armaments industry. The Baltic was essentially a German lake and the Royal Navy could not interdict these shipments. Some of the ore shipments, however, were shipped through Norwegian ports. The Royal Navy could interdict these shipments. Diplomatic pressure from Britain and France had some success in reducing other Swedish shipments to Germany. Other factors included food shortages and rebellious talk. The Government abandioned its pro-German policies (1916). Most Swedes wee increasingly coming to the opinion that strict neutrality shold be the path for their country. A new, less pro-German conservative cabinet which decided to calm developing social unrest with democratic reforms. This firmly cemented Sweden's neutralist and would soon lead to the political dominance of Social Democrats in the 20th century. The terrible casualties reported by World War I combatants only confirmd the oponion of most Swedes tht neutrality was the approprite policy for Sweden.


Switzerland by the time of World War I had a long tradition of neutrality. The Swiss military was decidedly pro-German, largely necaue a strong majority ofthe population was ethnic German. The Swiss passed military intelligence to the Germans. The country, however, remained neutral throughout World War I (1914-18). The War had, however, a significant impact on Swiss society and the economy. Existing tensions in Swiss society were exacerbated. Swiss neutrality was an armed neutrality. Many of the men mobilized for active military service were workers. These conscripts recieved very low wages. As a result their families suffered and often when they returned home they found that their employers had replaced them. This created considerable resentment among workers. Switzerland's population is mostly German with a large French munority. These two communities generally favored their ethnic/linuistic counterparts. Existing divisions between the two communities hardened. The French community was outraged at the Government's pro-German bias. The Swiss foreign minister had to resign when the press reported that he was trying to negotiate a peace settlement between Germany and the revolutionary regime in Russia that replaced the Tsar (1917). The cost of supporting a substantial military force on the border was a burden to the economy as were refugees from the beligerant countries. Discontented workers were radicalized by the Russian socialist revolutionaries (Lenin, Trotsky and Zinoviev) who had received asylum in Switzerland. Workers were also incouraged by the news of the successful Revolution in Russia. A general strike fueled by worker resentment occurred at the end of the War (November 11). The Federal Council finally deployed the army and the strike failed (November 13). The Government rejected the workers demands. Political changes resulted from fear of another general strike. The workers had demanded proportional representation. A system of majority voting effectively excluded the pro-worker Socialist Party from real influence. This was finally adopted by a 1919 referendum. As a result of greater worker influence, the Swiss Government began to adopt important welfare programs as well as a 48 hour working week.


Syria at the time of World War I was part of the Ottoman Empire. The end of Ottoman rule in Syria is tied up with the British offensive in Palestine and the Arab revolt. After inconclusive fighting, British General Allenby finally entered Jerusalem (December 8-9, 1917). This put the entire Ottoman position in the Levant in jepordy, but the demands of the Western Fronr in France made it impossible to followup on his victory immediately. Allenby finally received needed replacements, Indian troops. He prepared his final offensive against the Ottomans (September 18). Air supremecy left the Ottomon's blind as to where Allenby would strike. There was also a successful deception plan. The Battle of Meggido began with an attack along the Mediterranean coast (September 19-21). The attack opened a huge gap in the Ottoman right and Allenby pored his calvalry through that hole to rapidly exploit it. The whole Ottoman front collapsed. The Ottoman 8th Army was destroyed in the initial attack. The 4th and 7th Armies retreated north along the Jordan River. Allenby hotly persued them toward Damascus, hammering them with both calvalry and airpower (September 22-October 30, 1918). Sharif Husayn was the Ottoman appointee over the Hijaz, the most prestigious post in Islam. There was support in Syria among Arab nationalists for Husayn and his Hashimite family. Husayn and his sons launched the Arab revolt, supported by the British (June 5, 1916). They were assisted by the charismatic T.E. Lawrence. Faysal and the Arabs could not have defeated Ottomon troops on their own. TheBritish destruction of the Ottoman Army, however, created opportunities for Fayal to seize opwer in Syria. Faysal and his Arab Army, operating on the right of the Btitish Army, entered Damascus as a liberator. The Ottomans with their armies being destroyed in the field agreed to an armistice on Mudros, ending the fighting (October 30, 1918).


The French occupied Tunisia (1881), alienating the Italian Goverment which had its signts on Tunisia for it new empire. German Chancellor Bismarck took advantage of the Italian resentment and brought Italy within the German orbit with the Triple Alliance between Germany, Italy and Austria-Hungary (1882). Uttimately this proved an unstable association. The austrian Empire included large areas populated by ethnic Italians, including much of what iis now northeastern Italy. Mist Italians saw this as much more important than African Tunisia. Ultimtely the Allies were able to break Italy away as a result of the Italian desire to obtain Austro-Hungarian territory inhabited by Italians. Italy entered the War on the Allied side (1915).


See the Ottoman Empire.


Much of World War I on the Eastern Front was fought in the north in Poland and Western Russia between the Germans and Russians. Fighting also took place along a central front in the Western Ukraine on the Russian-Austro-Hungarian border. Here the Russians had more success. Fighting in the south was limited because Romania was not initially involved in the War. Relatively little fighting actually took place in the Ukraine except the western border lands. Many Ukranians drafted into the Russian Army died in the fighting. Other Ukranians were drafted to fight in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The War and the Russian Revolution destroyed The Russian Empire which had dominated most of the Ukraine. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk between The Bolshevik Goverment and the German Empire (March 1918) separated the Ukraine from Russia. This would have resulted in the creation of a German client state in the Ukraine. The Ukranians attempted to declare independence. The German defeat in the West (November 1918) invalidated the Treaty and significantly changed the balance of power. While relatively little of the fighting in World war I occurred in the Ukraine, such was not the case in World War II.


Uruguay with the outbreak of World War I declared its neutrality. There was concrn, however, about the large German population in southern Brazil. Apparently there was some talk of organizing a force to invade Uruguay and join the German Empire. The release of the Luxburg dispatches by the Argentine Government further damaged Uruguauan attitudes toward the Germanswho began to see them as both obtuse and cruel, the same image British war propaganda promoted. After the United States declared war (April 1917), President Feliciano Viera revoked Uruguayan neutrality. The Congress gave him the authority to break diplomatic relations with Germany and to seize eight German ships in Montevideo harbor. Man neutral Latin American countries had German ships in ther harbor waiting out the War because if they attempted to return to Germany thay would be seized by the Royal Navy. When Brazil revoked its neutrality, the Uruguayan Government announced that the principle of inter-American solidarity would be the primary focus of its foreign policy. The Government statement read, "no American country, which in defense of its own rights should find itself in a state of war with nations of other continents will be treated as a belligerent."


Venezuela at the time of World War I was a poor South American.Caribbean country that unlike most of the region had been at the center of some serious international disputes. This jncluded one which had the potential to escalate into a serious confrontation between America and Britain. While Vezuela had serious issues with Britain, there were largely positive trading relations wih Germany. Like most South American countries, Venezuela during the late-19th century experienced political turmoil and dictatorial rule by a series of cauldillos (military strongmen). This continued into the early-20th century. These caudillos dominated the country and trampeled on individual rights. Their autocratic policies led to serious interntional incidents. Venezuela was strictly neutral throughout the War. President Juan Vicente Gomez is widely reported to have been pro-German. There was no way, however, he could join the Central Powers because of British comtrol of the seas. Strict neutrality was in a way helpful to the Germans. Some sources say that this was rumors spread by his political enemies. Strict Venezuelan neutrality irritated the Allies because the Government so rigidly insisted on its neutrality. The Government was determined to maintain relations with all belligerent countries. The government even allowed the Germans to use their radios at Maracaibo without any restriction. This was helpful because Germany without access to British controlled cabels and with losing its colonial outposts gradually lost communication with its oversseas posts and ships operationg around the world. The United States entered the War (1917). America's major concern in the Caribbean was the security of the Panama Canal. We note U.S. Navy ships to Venezuela at this time, perhaps ae a show of naval power. We note naval calls to various ports throughout the Caribbean, both neutrl and Allied countries. The discovery of massive oil deposits in western Venezuela (Lake Maracaibo) during World War I would prove central to the country's future. It began the transformation of the economy, from a heavy dependence on agricultural exports to a reliance on petroleum--a single commodity, but a very important one. And as a result, the country would play an important role in World War II, supplying petroleum to the Allies war effort.


When the Ottiomans entered World War I as part of the Central Powers, they brought the war to the Arabian Peninsula (October 1914). Their invasion of Egyot fauled. The British began building up their forces in Egypt. They also decided to support the Arab Revoly, sending Larence to assist the arabs. Britain was concerned anout their important naval base in Aden. Rather than tie down British soldiers, they enlisted the fierce Yemeni tribal fighters against Turkish garrisons. Imam Yahya Muhammad Hamid ed-Din saw the War as an oppotunity to expel the Ottomns once and for all and to unite the Yemeni tribes. Further north, Colonel Lawrence and the Arab Army attacked Ottoman Hejaz railway. Becaue of British naval power, the railway was the only way the Ottomans coukld supply their garrison in Yemen. Imam Yahya quickly destroyed the Turkish expeditionary force once the railway was cut. Yemeni tribal fighters stormed the Ottoman posditions. They suffered substantial losses but proceeded to slaughter the Ottoman garrisons.


Burton, Ormond. "A rich old man' (unpublished autobiography).

Keegan, John. The First World War (Knopf: New York, 1999), 475p.


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