The iniitial sentiment in the Allied Nation after the War was one of elation. But this soon changed as a realization of the cost set in with the public, especially the huge numbers of casualties. Anti-war sentiment grew. The "Never again" sentiment became prounounced. One aspect of the growing anti-war sentiment was a declining appreciation of the military. In the wake of the World War I disaster, anti-militarism grew in both Europe and in America. This sentiment was one of the major reasons that Britain and France did not effectively contront the NAZIs. Men like Baldwin and Chamberlain were unwilling to either prepare for War or even fight the war agressively. Even Churchill was very cautious about casualties. Hitler understood better perhaps than anyone in Europe that democratic governments would avoid war so as to avoid casualties. This was a calculation that did not burden him or for that matter Stalin. American attitudes were in part pacifism , but and even stroinger sentiment was a desire to disassociate from Europe which was seen as the source of endless political strife. Pacifism was an elemement in isolationist sentiment in America. The Congress launched a major investigation designed to prove that American arms manufacturers had help involve the United States in the War. It is ironic that the industry that would save Western civilization was during the inter-wars year was being being investigated for disloyalty by Congress. The Committee became known as the Dyes Committee led by Congressman Martin Dyes. After a huge investigation, no evidence was found to justify the charges. Public opinion in America remained staunchly against involvement in World war II until Pearl Harbor. While Socialist inspired pacifism had weakened the Allied response to Hitler, socialist leaders in Germany and occupied countries were targeted by the NAZIs. Some how Hitler and the nationalists managed to shift the war blame from German militarists to the Socialist politicans who signed the peace. Anti-war feeling was strong in Germany after the War, but so was resentment toward the Versailles treaty. The future of Germany would be decided on which of these two sentiments would prevail. The anti-war book and film All Quiet on the Western Front was hugely popular in Germany. At the same time ultra-nationlist poltical parties developed a considerable following, especially after the onset of the Depression. The Socialists warned that Hitler and the NAZIs would bring war. And they were right. Even so, after 6 years of NAZI propaganda, were not enthusiastic as Hitler moved Germany toward war.
The iniitial sentiment in the Allied Nation after the War was one of elation. But this soon changed as a realization of the cost set in with the public, especially the huge numbers of casualties. Anti-war sentiment grew. The "Never again" sentiment became prounounced. One aspect of the growing anti-war sentiment was a declining appreciation of the military. In the wake of the World War I disaster, anti-militarism grew in both Europe and in America. This sentiment was one of the major reasons that Britain and France did not effectively contront the NAZIs. It was pacifism that nearly brought the end of Western Civilizaion, what Primeministr Churchill woyld call 'a ndew dark age'. The movement to prevent another huge blood-letting was a major factor leading to the deaths of perhaps 100 million people in World Wwar II, and the toll would have been much higher had not the Western allies prevailed.
After World War I pacifist ideas became wuide spread in Europe and America. Pacifism was an imoprtant part of socialist ideology. Notably, the most socialist country of all -- the Soviet Union had the world's largest military establishment. Pacifism was alright for ythec capitalist West, but banned in peasrat and workers paraduce. Stalin saw to it that pacifists were relegated to the Gulag. There was no place for pacifism in the Soviet Union, except for propagandists promoting pacifism in other countries. And in Germany, Natiional Socialists purged pacifism from the national ethos. Fascists did the same in Italy, but not as successfully as the NAZIS. Pacifism was especially prounounced in Britain and France and the mnajor imoact was countries encapable of resistinhg a a rearmned Germany. Only the Channel saved Britain. The British Dominions had pacifidst movements, but followed Britsin tonyo the war, albeit totally unprpared. America with a smaller socialist imprint was a little different. Here pacifism was more isoiationist thinking, a conviction to stay out of the next war. That conviction was smashed at Peral Harbor, but thankfully America had begun to prepare. Fortunately for Britain and France, America had more time and space to prepare. Japan before World War II had little pacifist thought and as in Germany, the militarists in the 1930s purged all such thought wuth the Buyshido creed. Nany neutral counties has strong pacifist movements and thought that neurtalism and the League of Nations weiuld guarantee their secturity. Most found that neither was any protection. Theybfiund it impossible as Trotsky warned, wsar found them. They were unable to defend themselves when the totalitarian ppoweers attacked, buth Axis and Soviet. A few neutral countries managed to stay out of the war, butonly because the NAZIs were defeated by countries which armed themselves and waged war.
Siegel, Mona L.
The Moral Disarmament of France: Education, Pacifism, and Patriotism, 1914-1940 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 317p.
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