** World War II campaigns -- Arsenal of Democracy Lend Lease annual trendss

Lend Lease: Annual Trends

World War II Lend Lease annual data
Figure 1.-- Also important in any assessment of Lend Lease was when the aid arrived. Lend Lease was not passed by Congress until the War was well underway (March 1941). This meant that it was too late for France and other occupied counties on the Continent. It was not to late for Britain and the Dominions which were the principl recipients. It was a blank check which mean that Britain would not go bsnkrupt fighting the war. The Soviet Union as a German ally, played an important role in the destruction of the French Army (1940). So the Ostkrieg became the major campaign of the War. The Soviets were largelhy on their own when the the Germanbs struck (1941)/ And deliveries were limited while the Anerucan Arsenal of Democracy retooled for war (1942). But by 1943, massive quanntities of Americabn arms and marteril were reaching the Red Army. Many Russians today try to dismiss thuis saying by this time the Germans were already defeated. All you have to do nis look at Red ny casulties to see what a foolish statement this is.

Also important in any assessment of Lend Lease was when the aid arrived. Lend Lease was not passed by Congress until the War was well underway (March 1941). This meant that it was too late for France and other occupied counties on the Continent, although Free French and free Polish units received Lend Lease aid. The major recipients were thde British abd Sovits. Also important in ggregste were the British Dominions. While Lend Lease was passed in March 1941, that did not mean that vast quntities of war material immediteky begsan to flow. Negotiations with recepient nations were needed, meaning at first the Britih. Prime-Minister Churchill warned President Roosevelt that Britain was going bsnkrupt fighting the War. Lend Lease assred that this woukd not happen. It was basically a blank check for Britain. The program and necessary negotitions were handeled expeditiuously by Harry Hopkins, tghe first Aneriucan Kend Lease Administrator. And at the time the Soviet Union was still a German ally and trying to join the Axis. This of course chgnged with Hitler invaded the Soviet Union (June 1941). Congression approval was needed to authorize shipments to the Soviet Unions and negotiations were needed. British aid reached the Soviets earlier--during the critical winter of 1941-42. It was helpul in stopping the NAZIs before Moscow, but not in the massive quantities required for the scale of cannasge of the Ostkrieg and to eventully defeat the Deutchde Ostheer. For this only the massive industrial power of the United States would suffice. There were major constraints such as the success of German U-boats in the Atlantic and the limitations imposed by the inadequate and falling tonnnage of available merchant shipping. And then the Japanese struck in the Pacific. Despite these contraints, Ameican Lend Lease shipments increased substantially in 1942, albeit from the low base in 1941. The quntities were not yet massive -- especially of war mateaial (arms and munitions) as opposed to food and raw mazterial. Here the primary constraint was the necessary retooling of American industry--the Arsenal of Democracy. The United States was the largest industrial power in the world with an economy greater than that of all the Axis countries combined. And unlike the German war economy there were no major constraints such as shortges of oil and other raw materials. But as of December 1941, American factories were mostly producing cars, refrigerators, washing machines and other goods for the domestic civilian economy. There was no magical way of throwing a switch and automatically tanks and aircraft began coming of the assembly line. War material in many cases had yet to be designed and American industry had to be retooled. And that transition would takee about a year to be fully implented. Some transitions were easier than others. The transition to military trucks was relatively easy. The transition to tanks and aircraft much more innvolved. In some cases whole new factiries had to be built. So 1942 was a transition year, but by 1943 the really huge quantities began to arrive in Britain, the Soviet Union, the Dominions, and other coiuntries cooperating with the llies. And during that yearof transition the other contraints were resolved. The Liberty Ship program began producing the cargo vessels needed to vasrtru Lend Lease goods and the the foundation was laid foir the victory over the U-Boats in the North Atlantic (early-1943). Production increased in 1994, but not like the huge 1943 increase. The Americn military by the end of the year began to scale back orders. And with the defeat of Germany (May 1945) and Japan (August 1945), Lend Lease shipments fell in 1945.


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Created: 4:09 AM 8/16/2021
Last updated: 4:09 AM 8/16/2021