** World War II -- Soviet war crimes and atriocities

World War II: Soviet War Crimes and Atrocities

Figure 1.--Here starved Ukranian peasants have died on a street in Kharkiv (Kharkov) as a result of collectivizatio (1933). This was part of a Memorial exhibition, Widener Library, Harvard University. The NKVD did a good job of hushing up the dimensiins of the Ukranian famine. It was an NKVD genocide killing operation engineerd by Stalin--the Holodomor. This photograph was intially published in Austria. Wilhelm Braumüller, Muss Russland hungern? (Must Russia starve?) (Wien / Vienna: 1935).

The Soviet Union for nearly 2 years was a NAZI ally and helped launch the War by invading Poland. The Soviets committed the same kind of rimes most commomly asociated with the NAZIs, but without the Jewish mania. And like the NAZis these actions were commited at the direction of its government. The major difference was that the greatest killing programs and slave labor brutalities were committed against the Soviet people, not conquered people--although there was a great deal of this as well. The crimes committed included launching wars of aggression, mass murder, genocide of civilians, murder of prisoners of war, and brutal repression of coquered people. The Bolsheviks began committing terrible crimes furing the Civil War (1919-21). This included creating famine in areas controoled by the Whites. War crimes and atrocities were perpetrated by not only the Red Army military formations but the various secret police organizations beginning with the Cheka. It was the NKVD during the Great Terror that killed the large numbers of peole. This was ordered by Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, but killing operations were authorized by Lenin during the earliest period of Soviet rule. The crimes of Stalin were superficially addressed by Khrushchev, but reported in detail by Solzhenitsyn. This brutal behavior continued after Stalin and Hitler launched World War II with the invasion of Poland and other neighboring countries. The Katyn Massacre and mass rape by troops of the Red Army are the best known atrocities, but only a small part of what occurred. Many more mass graves have been found since the War. After the War, the Allied Powers consucted the International Military Tribunal to examine war crimes committed by NAZI Germany. Soviet officials participated in the judicial processes. As a result, there was no examination of Soviet atrocities and no charges were brought against its military and governmet. And because they controlled Eastern Europe where massive war crimes were committed, Soviet conduct went unexamined and unpunished, inclusing the atrocities committed after the War. The Soviet Government during most of the Cold war denied all charges of atrocities but finally began dmitting what their forces had done including Katyn. It is very contoversial in modern Russia because the Red Army and Great Patriotic War is such an important part of Russian identity. Under President Putin, Russian autoirities have returned to covering up Red Army conduct. The Russian Government regularly dismisses Soviet war crimes as a Western myth. School text books war crimes are either portrayed positively (Russian censors are very creative) or simply omitted. Ppresident Putin waffels slightlynon the issue. He has acknowledged the 'horrors of Stalinism', but criticizesd the 'excessive demonization of Stalin' by 'Russia's enemies'. China takes a similar approach with Mao.

Bolshevik Supression of Civil Liberties (1917)

World War I and food shortahes irrevocably broke what ever bond existed between the Tsar and the Russian npeopole after the Revolution of 1905. The Tsar unwillingness to work with the new Duman (parliament) the primary achievement of 1905 alienated moderated, middle-class Russians. The Russian Revolution actually consisted of two revolutions in 1917 ending centuries of absolutist Tsarist rule and beginning decades of even more absolutist Communist totaltarian rule. The first occurred overthrew Tsarist rule and installed a parlimentary democracy as had developed in Western Europe (February 1917). Russia for a brief period enjoyed basic civil right, free speech, and an unensored press. The Ocrana, Tsarist secret police was abolished. For a brief period, Russia was without a secret police force. Only 8 months later, the second or Bolshevik Revolution was carried our by Vladamir Lenin and the Bolsheviks, radical Socialists now called Communists (October 1917). They reinstututed all the old features of Tsarist oppression with a more extensive and ruthless dictatorship established by the Chekka, Bolshevik secret police. The Bosheviks invented the modern totalitarian state and most of them who survived the Revolutiin would perish in the Stalinist Terror. The Old Bosheviks would be at the top of Stalin's hit lkit and his highly effifent secret police, the NKVD.

Bolsheviks Using Food as a Weapon in Russia (1919-21)

The Tsarist Empire including the Ukraine was bread basket of Europe, producing vast quantities of grain. World War I and its aftermath changed that. Russia including Ukraine suffered six and a half years of World War I, the Russian Revolution, and Civil War (1914-21). The Wars and revolutionary deruption occured almost entirely within the boundaries of the former Tasrist Empire, most of which became the Soviet Union. Some 7–12 million people persushed durung them Russian Civil War alone. Most of these deaths were civilians. [Mawdsley, p. 287.] Even before the Civil War, Russia was experiencing food shortages bordering on famine. It was food shortages in the cities that set off the Russian Revolution (February 1917). The Bolsheviks seized control (October 1917) and their actions to arrest and supress the democratic political proicess and basic liberties set off the Civil War (1918-21). This wat the same time that World War I ended. There were food shortages throughout Europe. America played major role in feeding a starving Europe through a variety of relief efforts. The Civil War prevented food aid reaching Russia. It did reach areas of the former Tsarit Empire (Poland, the Baltics and Finland. Lenin refused to accept American aid because it reflected poorly on the Blosheviks and the new Soviet Government. Communism was suposed to create a workers paradice not starvation and famine. And definitevely not to go begging to a capitalist country for food. The food situatiin became especially sebere in Russia because of the Cvil War. All sides in the Civil War (Bolsheviks, the Whites, the Anarchists, the nationalities vying for independence were involved. They seized food from the peasantry who grew it and provided it to their armies and supporters as well as trying to deny it to their enemies. This affected what the peasants were planting and harvesting as well as the destribution system. The Bolsheviks as the domimnant poer in the country' Russian heartland was the faction most resonsible for the developing famine. The Bolsheviks 'requisitioned' meaning seized food and supplies from the peasantry. Little or nothing was paid. Thes peasantry quite understandably reduce their plantings and resulting production. The peasants attempted to withhold their havvests and sell it on the black market. [Carr, Part 2, p. 233.] The Bolsheviks blamed this activity on the better off peasants (kulaks) who would become a Soviet target. Most countries would see successful farmers as a national assett. To the Bolsheviks they were class enemies. Which is why the Bolsheviks turned the breadbasket of Europe into a running problem in the Siviet Uniin. Lenin ordered increased seizures from the peasantry (1920). Despite an increasingly desperate sutuation, the Bolsheviks continued to reject foreign assustance. The American Relief Administration (ARA), which Herbert Hoover formed to help feed victims of starvation of World War I, offered assistance to Lenin very early on (1919). Lenin demanded total control over the distribution of any food provided by the Americans. And rejected any American involvement in the rail system whicjh is how the food would be distributed. The Americans offered food free, butbwith the condition that they be able to use the Russian rail system without interference and distribute food impartially where ever it was needed. [Masters, p. 5.] Lenin rejected the American effort. As a result, Russia experienced a terrible famine. He was willing to accept starving peasants and tiwn dwekllers, but the disorders that followed threatened the regime, including the the Kronstadt rebellion and widespread peasant uprisings, such as the Tambov Rebellion. Also disturbing was the failure of the German general strike. The Bolsheviks had assumed that ytheir rebellion in backward Russia was a harbinger for other revolutions throughout Europe. This is where Marxed believed the revolutions would occurr. Anbd Germany was the most industrialized ciuntry in Europe, with the largest industrial proleterit and Socilist movement. When the rvolution in Germany ailed, Lenin understood he would have to make Socialism work in Russia. His nswer was the New Economic Policy (NEP) announced (March 15, 1921). NEP was essenyilly market reforms--capitalism to save the Revolution. And he decided to acceot American aid and allow the Americans to control an inpartial duistribution. The ARA had an organization ready to go. War relief was no longer needed in Western Europe which was recovering. The result was that untold millions of Russians were saved from starving by American food relief. This is not the kind of ghing the Soviets and now the Russians like to admit to, needing help from America. Very few Russiuans are aware of this chapter in their history.

Bolshevik Slave Labor

Atheism Camapign

The Bolsheviks were committed atheists and began aupressing religious activity during the Cibil War. A mirganized anteism camoaign began adfter the Whuites had been degaeted (1921). The gial was to eliminate orhanized religion and repolace it with deist or agniostic tahinking or preferabky atheism and a materualist world view. This was a primary ideological goal of the new Soviet state. It was not made never illegal to be a believer or to have religion. As a result the ctions were taken against the churches such as confiscating their property. Induvuduals were procecuted for om a range of other ptetexts, invoked or invented, Stalin by the time he was in full control of the state, launched a new much more aggressibe and deadly phase of the atheust camoaign (1928). He was dusatisfied wuth the results of the first phase of the effort.


Agricultural production after impressive gains durng the NEP of the 1920s declined in the 1930s. This was in sharp contrast to rising industrial production and wholly the result of Stalin's decession to end individual peasant propretorship (1929-31). We do not fully understand Stalin's thought processes here. There may have been an element of idelogical purity involved. The organization of the collective proved useful in fighting the NAZI invasion. The principal reason, however, appears to be that private proprietors were an independent interest group outside his control and he wanted total control of not only the Sovet state, but of Soviet society as well. The mechanisms used were brutal. Successful peasants were vilified as Kulaks. Most were forced into collectives others were deported to Siberia where many died. Resistance flared. Many peeasants slaughtered their livestock rather than turn it over to the collectives. [Wells, pp. 960-961] The Soviet livestock industry did not recover until well after World War II. Resistance was espcially pronounced in the. and was brutally supressed by the NKVD. The center of resistance was the Ukraine. There a terrible famine not only resulted, but was enginered by Stalin.

Ukranian Genocide/Holodomor

One of the greatest crimes of the Stalinist era was horific famine in the Ukraine. The famine area included both the Ukraine and the Soviet northern Caucasus, as well as Russian areas in the lower Volga River basin. Famines are historically primarily the results of natural events such as drought, heat, diseases, insect infestations, and other natural causes. The Ukranian famine was primarily caused by Stalin's program of collectiving Soviet agriculture, especially the forced collectivization of the Ukraine. The Ukraine had been the bread basket of Russia. It was the prize sought by the Germans in two world wars. The rich, well watered soil made the Ukraine the most productive agrivcultural area of the Soviet Union. Two issues merged which resulted in dissaster for the Ukranian people. Not only did the Ukranian peasantry resist collectivization, but there was a strong Ukranian national spirit, especially in the western Ukraine. Stalin was determined to both bring agicultural under central control, but to crush Ukrainian nationalism at the same time. Stalin not only used the famine to crush the spirit of the Ukranian peole, but he also purged the Ukrainian intelligentsia. Stalin even purged the Ukrainian Communist party. At the cost of millions of lives, many of them children, the famine succeedded in breaking any organized redsistance on the part of the peasantry to collectivization. Stalin's purges also succeeded in smashing the Ukranian national movement. Stalin's actions in the Ukraine were not without costs beyond the deaths of Ukranians. Agricultural production plummeted. Soviet agricultural became one of the most inefficent agricultural operations in the world. Stalin bought Ukranian agricultural under his control through collectivization, he also signicantly reduced the output of Soviet agriculture.

Great Terror

Stalin organized a series of show trials in which priminent officials and military officers were forced to admit to ludicrous accounts of treason. Soviet citizens were encouraged to denounce their neigbors. Many did in an effort to improve their chances of survival. Stalin consolidated his personal power by eliminating opponents, suppressing any vestige of independent thought. A biographer reports that Stalin ruled by the Big Lie "not only by terror but also by falsification". Stalin used torture to extract false confessions creating what has become known as the Great Terror. [Conquest] Stlalin turned the Soviet Union into a police state in which Soviet citizens lacked even the most basic civil liberties. Workers were completely at the disposition of the state. Stalin ordered purges in which millios lost their jobs, homes, freedom, and often their lives. Most important Blosheviks that had led the Revolution were arrested and show trails organized in which the tortured defendents confessed to traechery and traeason (1936-38). Most were executed. Only a few Bolsehevik leaders, men like Molotov who were close to Stalin, survived. But the FGreat Terror went far beyond individuals. The Politbiuro to gain Stalin's favor ordered Yezhov to launch 'mass operations' to round up recidivist criminals, remaining kulaks, and other 'anti-Soviet elements' (July 3, 1937). Those arrsted were judged by three-person tribunals. Yezhov established quotas in each district setting the number of people arrests. NKVD units in an effirt to show their effectiveness and hopefully earn promotions vied in exceeding these quotas. Yezhov's initial quota was 177,500 exiled and 72,950 executed. The NKVD subsrabyially exceeeded these quotas. One observer writes, "What had begun as bloody retribution against the defeated political opposition developed as a self-induced pathology within the body politic. Its psychic consequences among the survivors were long-lasting and incalculable."

The Gulag

The Gulag is the system of slave labor camps initially established in 1919 by the Cheka--the secret police established by the Bolshevicks after they seized power from the Russian Provisional Government. It was a crime against humanity withoutparalell in Europen history, except for the NAZI system od forced labor and death camps. The numbers of people incarcerated was realtively limited during the 1920s while Lenin was alive and after his death when Bolsevick leadrs struggled for comtrol. This began to change one Stalin ha seized control of the Soviet Union. Stlalin was in control by 1929 and by the early 1930s the numbers of people incarcerated in the camps of the Gulag began to reach sizeable numbers. The Gulag under Stalin was administered by the Main Directorate for Corrective Labor Camps, a unit under the NKVD which had replaced the Cheka. As a reult of the increased arrests ordered by Stalin, the Gulag by 1934 had several million inmates. As in any country, some of the imates were murderers, thieves, and all variety of ordinary criminals. Under Stalin the make up of the prisonors changed and included increasing numbers of political and religious dissenters. Most were not dissenters in the sence of men and women actively working afainst the Soviet system. Many may simply have told a joke or have been reported by others for a host of reasons. Some were arrested simply because NKVD officers were given quotas. The Soviet Union under Stalin was a country in which the average citizen could at any time be arrested. Then they would be tortured and killed or sent to forced labor camps comprising an emense Gulag where they would often simply disappear. The Gulag camps were located throughout the Soviet Union, but primarily in remote regions of Siberia and the Far North where living conditions were often extremely severe--a factor in the low survival rates at some camps. The Gulag reached such significant levels that under Stalin it was a major factor in the Soviet econonomy. Gulag prisoners were used in several difficult construction projects such as the White Sea-Baltic Canal, the Moscow-Volga Canal, the Baikal-Amur main railroad line, many hydroelectric stations, and strategically important roads and industrial enterprises in remote regions where it would have been difficult and expensive to have recruited free labor. GULAG slave labor was extensively used in the Soviet Union's lumber industry as well as the mining of coal, copper, and gold.

Invasion and Supression of Poles

The shattered Polish forces fell back east and attempt to organize a new defensive line. Once certain of Polish defeat, Stalin seeing that the Polish Army was unable to resist the Germans and that the British and French were not intervening, ordered the Red Army to attack from the East (September 17). A Red Army force of 1 million men enters Poland, Soviet propaganda claims it was necessary to "protect it's Byelorussian and Ukrainian population." This was an attempt to follow the NAZI success at claiming to protect the German minority in Czexhoslovakia and Poland. The demoralized Polish Army which valiantly fought the Germans, offers little resistance to the Soviets. The Soviets take 240,000 Polish soldiers and 15,400 officers prisioner German and Russian forces met at Brest-Litovsk (September 18). World War II accounts usually focus on the NAZI invasion and occupation of Poland. In fact the Soviet occupation was also horific, although it did not include the biological genocide of the NAZI occupation. Stalin like Hitler, however, was at this stage of the War intent on destroying the Polish nation. Polish soldiers were internened in camps by the Soviets. Soviet actions in eastern Poland were extremely brutal. An estimated 0.1 million Poles were killed by the Soviets (1939-41). The most publicized killings were the Polish officers shot by the NKVD in the Katyn Forrest, but this was only a part of the wide spread executions of Poles by the Soviets. Some estimates suggest that 2.0 million Poles were deported to Siberia and other areas in the Soviet Union.

Invasion of Finland

It was the Soviet Union not Germany that first struck after the invasion of Poland. Only 2 months after seizing eastern Poland, the Soviet Union on November 30, 1939 invaded Finland, launching the Winter War. Stalin sought a security belt to the west. Finland was the next step in that process. Soviet planes and naval vessels bombarded Finish cities. Roosevelt called in the "rape of Finland". [Freidel, p. 324.] Former Ameican President Herbert Hoover, who had organized American relief efforts for Belgium during World War I, headed voluntary war relief for the Finns. (The President hoped that Hoover would work with Mrs. Roosevelt to work on Government sponsored civilian war relief for the Allies. Such was Hoover animosity toward Roosevelt that he refused. If he had agreed, he suely would haave eventually headed American World War II relief efforts. [Freidel, p.325.] The Finns and Soviets reached a peace agreement in March 1940. The Soviets got the security belt they wanted around Lenningrad. The Soviet invasion of Finland had significant repercussions. The Allies for a time considered actively aiding Finland, but the Germans offensives in the West soon made that impossible. The poor performance of the Red Army in Finland was a factor in Hitler's decission to attack the Soviet Union before Britain had been defeated.

Invasion and Supression of Balts

The Baltic Republics (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) were at the time of World War I part of the Tasarist Empire. There was a degree of autonomy, but each were adversely affected by Tsar Alexanfer III;s ressification program. In the aftermath of the collapase of Tsarist rule, World Wat I, and the Russian Civil War, each of the the three republics fought wars with the Bolsheviks and Red Army for indeoendence. Each emerged as independent republics. There independence was guaranteed by the League of Nations. The process varied in each of the republics. In the 1930s, NAZI Germany built up massive military forces which beven combined the Baltic Republics had no way of defending themselves. Hitler seized Menem in Lithuania at the vsame time seized what was left of Czechoslovakia (March 1939). The NAZIs and Soviets signed an alliance (August 1939) and invaded Poland, launching World War II (September 1939). As part of their alliance, a Secet Codicil detailed how they divided up Eastern Europe, including the Baltics. After occypying Poland and invading Finland, Stalin turned to the Baltics: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithunaia. They took a series of steps, which included basing rights which forced the Balts to allow the entry of Red Army troops. The League of Natioins no longer was of any influence. Hitler ordered the German minority Home to the Reich. After the fall of France in the West (June 1940), the Soviets seized control and annexed each of the the Baltic Repbulics. There was some disagreemenbt over Lithuania, but Hitler did for the time, interfere. Stalin set the NKVD to work arresting a range of Balts seen to be opposed to Soviet rule. Soime were shot immediately, others were committed to the Gulag. Many other inclusing the families of men arrested were deported in mass to Central Asia and Siberia. There were many deaths in this process. .

Forced Deportations (1936-45)

Stalin ordered the forced resettlement of large numbers of non-Russisn Soviet citizens before, during, and after World War II. After seizing eastern Poland and the Baltic republics (Estonia, Latviam and Lithuania), large numbers were arrested and their families deported. During the War large numbers of people, mostly Muslims were forcibly resettled to isolated areas of the Soviet Union. One estimate suggests over 1.5 million people. Those deported included Volga Germans and seven nationalities from the Crimea and the northern Caucasus were deported (Balkars, the Chechens, Crimean Tatars, Ingush, Karachai, Kalmyks, and Meskhetians. There were also other minorities evicted from the Black Sea coastal region (Bulgarians, Greeks, and Armenians). Stalin was concerned about resistance to Soviet rule, desores for independence, and collaboration with the NAZIs. The possibility of a German attack was given as the reason for resettling the ethnically mixed population of Mtskheta, in southwestern Georgia. The Balkars were reportedly disciplined because it was alleged that they sent a white horse as a gift to Adolf Hitler. The KGB and other security forces rounded up and transported the deportees mostly railroad cargo to isolated areas in Kazakhstan, Kirgizia, Siberia, Uzbekistan. These were not well planned deportations. Little arrangements were made to recieve them. Most accounts suggest that about 40 percent of the deportees perished. The Crimean Tatars had an especially horrendous experience. About half died of hunger in the first 18 after having been deportment. After the War there were deportments of Poles to the Poland. Large numbers of people were deported from the former Baltic republics after they were retaken from the NAZIs (1944). There had been some colaboration with the NAZIs in the Ukraine, but there wasno large scale deportmet, probably because of the number of people involved. After Stalin's death (1953), Nikita Khrushchev began the Destalinization process with a speech at the 20th Party Congress (February 1956). He condemned the deportations as a violation of Leninist principles.

NKVD Prisoner Massacres (June 1941)

Stalin was tunned by the NAZI iuvasion (June 1941). The NKVD despite reports of German preparations was not permitted to make any contigency plans. The Soviet Union is a huge countrt and despite raid German advances. NKVD units away from nthe boirder had time to takevactiins and evacuate. One if the actions theu took was to start murdering prisoners in their custody. This included large numbers of political prioners un their custody in the areas overun because of aggession. This include eastern Polamd, Estonia , Latvia, Lithuania, and northeastern Romania (Bessarabia). (Finland is not on the list, because most Finns evacuated before the Red Army seized control of Karelia and other areas.) We are not sure who gave the order. It may have been Beria and nit Stalin who was apprently incapacitated for several days. The NKVD started executinhg the political prisoners. The iniitial order may have been to evacuate political prisoners into the interior. The collapse of Red Army resistance at the border, shortage of transportation and other supplies, and collapse of all legal procedures often resulted in the prioners simply being executed. Available transport was need to nevacuate desinated grouos as well as factories. It is believed that some 100,000 political proiners were executed before the arrival of the Germans. [Gellately, p. 391.]

Murder of Polish Home Army Freedom Fighters

The NKVD and SS cooperated in efforts to destroy the Polish Home Army. This was essentially a conyinuatioin of the actions against Poles thought to be likeky to rsist the occupiers. The best example of course was Katyn. There was even cooperaton between the SS and NKVD against the Home Island after the Germans invaded the Soviet Union. This was mostly after the Salingrad disaster (January 1943). Stalin ordered Soviet partisans to attack the Home Army forces (late-1943). [Piotrowski, pp. 98-99.]. This resulted in some limited cooperation between some Home Army units and German forces. The resurgent Red Army enter pre-War Polish territories (1944). The Home Army attemotef to established an uneasy truce with the Soviets. The Soviets (both the Red Army and NKVD forces) conducted operations against Home Army partisans. This included during and after the Home Army's Operation Tempest, which was to be a a joint Polish–Soviet operation against the retreating Germans wdesigned to estblish Polish claims to those territories. The Home Army helped Soviet units with scouting assistance, uprisings, and assistance in liberating some cities (e.g., Operation Ostra Brama in Vilnius, and the Lwów Uprising. The Soviet response was to arrest, imprison, or execute the Home Army fighters who had been fighting the NAZIs. [Crampton, pp. 197–98.] Operation Tempest had no real chance of suceeding. Stalin's intention was to ensure that there would be no independent Poland after the War. [Olsak-Glass] Stalin gave high priority to eliminating all non-Communits that might resist Communist control. Even years after the War, the NKVD continued arrestinh Home Army soldiers who had resistd the NAZIs. They were called 'cursed soldiers'.

Red Army Orgy of Rape

The NAZI plans for the East was geocide far beyond killing Jews. Genberalplan Ost involved murder in unimagined numbers. The Soviets also planned murder, but on a much more limted level, plrimarily ficusing on class enenies and nationalits. In additiin to these olans, the people in the path of the resurgent Red Army faced another horror--rape omn a massive scale. One author writes, "If the German advance into the Soviet Union previously could be characterized as horrifyingly systematic and industrialized in its genocidal slaughter of the innocent, then the Soviet advance into Central Europe was brutal, primitive, and bestial in nature." [Merc] The womnen of the Axis countries, especially the Germans, were intensely targeted, but the women of the countries victimized by yhe NAZIs were also victimized, including Poland and Yugoslavia. We are not less sure about the Baltics which the Soviets annexed (1940) nd the Ukrainee which had been part of the Soviet Union from the beginning. The rapists were soldiers desesentiviued by the brutality of the Ostkrieg. The desire for vengence as result of German depravity in the East was another factor. And the rapes wereifren enormously brutal with the women dyiung from wounds are killed outfight after the Red Aemy soldiers were dine with them. Front-line combat troops appear to have been more disciplined. The rear ecleon troops were virtually undisciplined. And once reacging the Reich, the Red Army soldiers not inly raped Germn women, but the millions of forced laborers from all over Europe. And this behavior emenated from the top Stalin diud noit order it, but did nothing to stop it, a least during the first few days when the Red Army artived. He seems to have seen it as a fitting reward for the men of the Red Army. v.

Imposition of NKVD Police Sates in Eastern Europe


Carr, E.H. The Bolshevik Revolution 1917–1923, Part 2 (1966).

Crampton, R.J. Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century (Routledge: 1994).

Gellately, Robert. Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe (Knopf: 2007).

Masters, Ann V. "Herbert Hoover's humanitarian corp plans 32nd reunion", Bridgeport Sunday Post Bridgeport, Connecticut (April 18, 1965), p. 5.

Mawdsley, Evan. The Russian Civil War (New York: Pegasus Books, 2007).

Merc, Steve. "The Red Army's rape of Europe," Globe at War website (February 27, 2015).

Olsak-Glass, Judith. "Review of Piotrowski's Poland's Holocaust" Sarmatian Review (January 1999).

Piotrowski, Tadeusz. Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, 1918-1947 (McFarland, 1998).


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Created: 2:45 AM 10/16/2019
Last updated: 4:24 AM 4/8/2021