Biographical Details on Boys' Clothing Styles (C)
Many famous and not so famous men remember the clothing and
hair styles they wore as boys. Not so many years ago it was all up to mom how junior was dressed. In some cases, especially in the late 19th and early 20th Century, moms in Europe and America let their imaginations run wild, choosing elaborate Fauntleroy and
kilt outfits for their darling sons. The wife in affluent families rarely worked and thus she had a great deal of time, and in some cases the assistance of nannies and governesses, to see to the care and dressing of their children. The results were very little boys kept in dresses. Ever after they passed out of dresses, little and not little boys done up in dress-like
tunics and kilts and lacy Fauntleroy suits and kilts as well as more manly sailor suits. Here is information on individuals whose last names begin with "C". This page is still being developed. If you have any historical information to add, do let us hear from you.
Caesar, Julius - (Rome, 100-44 BC): General and politican Julius Caesar was on his way to becoming the first Roman emperor when he was assasinated (44 BC). Along with Alexander, he is the best known figure of the ancient world. As with Alexander, their impact on events was limited by an early death at the peak of their power. Caesar brought the Empire close to its modern extension, conquering large areas of Sopain and most imporantly Gaul. This brouhht Rome to both the Atlantic and North Sea. He oversaw the first invasion of Britain and crossed the Rhine, demonstrating to the Germans that the Rhine was not a barrier. One is inclined to speculate that had Caesar lived that the Legions would have crossed the Rhine permanently and there would have been no Teutoburg Forrest. The consquences would have fundamentally altered European history. Caesar is one of the great military commanders of all time. Almost all military historians put Alexander and Caesar at or near the top of great military commanders. He had a tactical acumen tht ws unparalled and like all great commanders had an intuitive understanding of the battlefield as well as the equally important grasp of how armies functioned. He built on the existing Roman military structure and perfected it to the point that it would dominate Europe, the Levant, and North Africa for four centuries. He also left a vision of a united Europe that would inspire subsequent conquerors for centuries. While best known for his military accomplishments, Caesar was also an accomplished politican/satesman, orator, and author. [Yenne]
Caine, Michael - (UK, 1933- ): The Oscar winning British actor Micahel Caine was born in 1933 at Bermondsey in London. He did not come from a theatrical family. His father was a porter at the Billingsgate fish market. His mother a charlady (cleaning lady). His real name was Maurice Micklewhite. Young Maurice was evacuated from his home during the German World war II Blitz. He was placed in a home for 6 weeks where he was badly mistreated. He was beaten and poorly fed. At times he was locked in a cupboard. Finally his mother rescued him and throttled the lady who had mistreated him. The family expected Maurice to follow in his father's footsteps, but he had other plans. He had early, if non-professional experiences with acting. At the age of 3 years on a regular basis he would have to convince the rent collector that "Mummy's out", while she hid behind the front door coaxing him.
Cambell, Alec William (Australia, 1899- ): Alec William Campbell was the son of a commercial traveller and had a Scottish grandfather who had migrated to Australia. Alec was born in Launceston, Tasmania in 1899. He did his schooling at Scotch Oakburn College in Launceston from 1910-1915 where he was good at Aussie rules footy and cricket. He was a boyish looking 16 year old child when he lied about his age to join the Australian Infantry in June 1915. His mother farewelled the boy soldier at the dock but his dad was too upset to go and see his soldier boy off to a probable early death. Mrs. Campbell had lost a nephew in the same war. Alec was trained up and left with the 15th Battalion for the dreaded Gallipoli campaign.
Capone, Alphonsus - (US, 1899- ): No single individual symbolizes the gangsters that dominated American newspapers during the 1920s more than Scarface Al Capone. The 18th Amendment in 19?? brought prohibition after World War I. This opened up a vast new activity to criminals. The result was a ramapange of lawlessness unlike that American had ever seen and Al Capone became a symbol of that lawlessness. Capone was born in Brooklyn, New
York of Italian immigrant parents (1899). He was baptized "Alphonsus Capone" and grew up in a rough neighborhood plagued by "kid gangs". Capone was an intelligent child, but quit school in the 6th grade when he was 14 years old. He was soon involved in various youthful scams and worked in a series of low-paying jobs. He gravitated to the notorious Five Points gang in Manhattan and gradually developed into a full-fledged gangster in Frankie Yale's Brooklyn dive, the Harvard Inn where he worked as a bouncer and bartender. It was at the Club that Capone's face was scarred when after insulted a female patron, he was attacked by her brother. It earned him the nickname "Scarface", Capone went on the dominate the Chicago rackets and became a well-known national figure. He had a son, Sonny, to whom he was devoted.
Carson, Johnny - (US, 1925- ): Johnny grew up,in Nebraska. There is a nice picture of him a about 4 or 5 years old wearing a white short pants sailor suit and over the knee stockings.
Castro, Fidel Ruiz - (Cuba, 19 ): I have few details about the clothing Fidel wore as a boy, but some information about his schooling. Fidel described his schooling in a radio interview. Fidel went to a small boarding school, only about 30 boys, run by the La Salle brothers. He said that "They sometimes adopted a very censurable method. Some teachers or directors of the school had the habit of occasionally striking a student. My conflict there was because of that, due to a conflict with another student; a minor disagreement, as is normal among students of that age. I noted what today would be called poor teaching methods such as this one of using violence against a student. That was the first time that the brother inspector, in charge of students, struck me with great violence, slapping me roughly on both sides of the face. It was something unworthy and abusive. I must have been in the third grade in primary. That ate on me inside. Later on, when I was already in the fifth grade, on two different occasions they gave me a rap on the head. The last time, I was no longer willing to put up with it, and things wound up in a violent quarrel between the inspector and me. After that I decided not to return to school again." .... He goes on to say that he noted that the families with more wealth got greater attention from the teachers. He adds, "I was not against the discipline they imposed upon us, they had to do it. But when someone reaches a certain age, is in the fifth grade and has a sense of personal dignity, the use of violence, physical punishment, seems to be inconceivable." After leaving the La Salle school, he went to a Jesuit school, but had to board with a family as he was not accepted as a boarder. Interestingly, Fidel who does not seem to have taken to boarding schools has created in proportional terms perhaps the most extensive national boarding school education system in the world.
Cayley, George - (England, 1773-1857): The facts are simple enough. Sir George Cayley was born in Scarborough, Yorkshire in 1773. Apart from a few years in London he lived most of his life in nearby Brompton Hall. He was an inventor and worked on the problems of flight. He died in 1857. A closer investigation revealed a very talented person who had an unusual childhood. It is Cayley’s boyhood that will be of interest to HBC readers. For George Cayley boyhood and life there is truth in the idea that behind every great man is a woman.
Cezanne, Paul - (France, 1839-1906): Considered by many to be the father of 20th Century art. He apparently was a close boyhood friend of the novelist Emil Zola. The boys bathed nude in the river near their home in Aix-en Provence. Zola supported Cezanne when his early career achieved little critical acclaim. Later Cezanne refused to speak with him because of how he thought he was depicted in one of Zola's novels. Many believe that Cezanne's many paintings of bathers were influenced by his boyhood relationship with Zola. Cezanne wasone of the artists that Hitler and the NAZIs especially hated an put theirwork in the category of 'degenerate art'.
Chaliapin, Fedor - (Russia, 1873-1938): Feodor Ivanovich Chaliapin also spelled Fyodor Shalyapin was born into a peasant family (1873). He was aRussian operatic basso profundo whose declamation, great resonance, and innovative dynamic acting made him the best-known singer-actor of his time. He worked in a series of low income jobs before becoming involved in aocal peraa compny (1890). He was thus able to study music in Tiflis (Tbilisi, Georgia), His prodigious talent soon became apparent. He was hired by the Mamontov opera company, where he mastered the various Russian, French, and Italian roles that made him so famous. He debuted at the Imperial Mariinsky Theatre as Mephistopheles in Charles Gounod’s Faust (1895). He sang at La Scala under Arturo Toscanini, alongside Enrico Caruso (1901). Given his peasant origins, he was at first favorable toward the Revolution (1917). He left Russia after only a few years under Bolshevism (1922). It wa part of an extended concert tour. He would never return.
He contunued to be a tax-paying Soviet citizen. His first public break with the Communists came even before Stalin was in complete control (1927). The Soviet government had launched a campaign to pressure Chaliapin and other cultural living abroad to return to Russia so they could be comtrolled. When Chaliapin declined, the Soviet Government stripped him of his title of 'The First People’s Artist of the Soviet Republic' and threatened to deprive him of Soviet citizenship. By this tim, Stalin was gaining contol. He pressured Maksim Gorky, Chaliapin’s longtime friend, to persuade him to return to Russia. Gorky broke with Chaliapin after the singer not only refused, but published his memoirs, Maska i dusha (Man and Mask: Forty Years in the Life of a Singer (1932). <! trans. from French 1932 and reissued 1973.> Chaliapin in his book denounced the lack of freedom under the Bolsheviks.
Figure 1.--Thi snapshot of Fedor Chaliapin show with unidentified Russian peasant childrem presumably before he ledf Russia (1922). He was becoming increasingly concerned over the lack of freedom under the Bolsheviks. As was the case of artists in NAZI Germany, mist artists and other cultural figures sough accomodation with the regime. Many would end up in the Gulag.
Chamberlaine, Nevil (England, 1869-1940): Neville Chamberlain grew up in an important British political family. Both is father and older brother were importnt political figures. As a boy, Chamberlin grew up without his mother. His father who lost two wives in childbirth raised his boys to distrust emotion and to depend on cool rationality. Chamberlain in essence was a decent man who after World war I was determined to avoid another war. He is perhaps the best example in history that decent people, including them who oppose war, can do terrible damage. John Lennon asks us in his beautiful song asks us to 'Give peace a chance". If ever akeader of a great nation gave peace a chance, it was Neville Chamberlain. He may also well be the greatest failure as a prime minister in British history. Not because he was dishonest or venal, but because he was unwilling to use force to confront evil. He was convinced that he was the one man man uniquely capable of preventing war. Up through Munich most most British people agreed with this approach, the result was catastrophe in Europe and almost the end of Britain as an independent country. His name will be for ever associated with his failed policy of appeasement and the Munich Conference where he abandoned the Czech nation to the tender mercies of Hitler and the NAZIs.
Champollion, Jean François (France, 1790-1832): Jean François as a school boy was fascinated by the Emperor Napoleon's adventures. Although he leaned to read rather late he was very gifted with languages. He also was very diligent. Upon seeing a copy of the Rosetta Stone as a school boy and learning that no one yet understood it, determined that he would be the one to unlock the mystery. He became a linquistics scholar and did indeed unlock the mystery. He is today seen as the father of modern Egyptology.
Chaplin, Charlie (England/America, 1889-1977): Charles Spencer Chaplin is an icon of the early-Hollowoiod silent film era. He was born in London (1889) and had a very difficult childhood.
His father provided little support. His mother had mental problems and struggled to pay basic bills. He has two sessions in the work house as a young boy, attending pauper schools. He had to begin supporting himself. His mother was committed to a mental asylum when je was only 14 years old. Charlie supported himself performing with touring music halls. He then began performing as a stage actor and comedian. As he gained sucess he was signed by the important Fred Karno company which brought him to America. He was signed by the famed Keystone Studios (1914). He he stayed in England he amost certainly would have been drafted for World War I service. Very soon he became making a name for himself as 'The Tramp'. Chaplin was soon directing his own films. He moved through several studios (Essanay, Mutual, and First National). In only a few years his Tramp personal had made him one of the most famous and well loved individuals in the world (1918). To gain control over their films, Chaplin, Douglas Fairbanks, and Mary Pickford wjo Hollywood giants and close friends formed United Artists (1919). Pickford would have a falling out with him, but UA persisted as an important Hollywood distribution studio. One of this greatest films followed, 'The Kid' (1921), introducing one of Hollywood's great child starrs -- Jackie Coogan. With the advent of the takies, Chaplain's career wained (1930s). He became increasingly involved in politics. the was disturbed by the brutality of the NAZIs, although he expressed no pron,em with soviet brutality. He made only a few filns in the 30s, but achieved no sucesses. He did have one more triumph, 'The Great Dictator' satarizing Adolf Hitler and the NAZIs. It took some time to produce. He met resistance. But because of his personal wealth, he produced it helself. Hollywood did not want to antagonize the NAZIs because of the German box office. The British Government was pursuing appasment was not going to allow the film to be run, but by the time Chaplain released it, Hitler and Stalin had unleased World War II. The British found it useful propanganda. Meanwhile, Chaplin ran into trouble with the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Chaplin never applied for U.S. citizenship. And while he was critial of NAZI totalitarianism, he continued to ignore Soviet totalitarianism. While not a U.S. citizen, he began criticizing U.S. Government policy during and after the War. The FBI pursued largely trumped up moral charges against him. He was active in Communist-front organiizations. He criticized invesigtions of uspected Communists, especialy individuals in the entertaiment industry as well as U.S. procecution of Soviet espionage agents.
Chaucer, Geoffrey (England, c1343-1400): Geoffrey Chaucer was born in London (1340/1344). His family was well to. His father John Chaucer was a sucessful wine merchant and deputy to the king’s butler. We know little about his childhood, but it was clearly comfortable. It is with Chaucer that we begin to see commoners playing important rles in England. He seems to have been a nobelman's page. He received an excellent eduction, although we have no detils. We believe that he could read French, Latin, and Italian. He is of course best known today as a literary figure as the English language was begining to develop its modern form. He held many psitios, including alchemist and astronomer, courtier, diplomat, civil servant, and a domewhat incogrously a collector of scrap metal. Geoffrey todayis aquitted the honor as the Father of English literature. Literary scholares judge him as the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages. He is first poet to be buried Westminster Abbey, beginning the tradition of Poet's Corner. Among his most acclaimed works are The Book of the Duchess, House of Fame, Legend of Good Women and Troilus and Criseyde. He is best known today for The Canterbury Tales. and in addition to his literary contribution, Chaucer was a crucial figure in developmenbt of the English language. His major contribution here was the legitimacy of the vernacular, at the time Middle English, as a legitimate medium for scholarly and literary work. Before Chaucer the dominant literary languages in England were French and Latinas was the case hrough much of Europe.
Chesterton, G.K. (England, 1874-1936): G.K. Chesteron is one of the most prolific authors of the 20th century. He was born in Campden Hill, Kensington in London during 1874. Until he begab school he had rather an unconventional Victorian upbringing. He was educated at home and in a preparatory school before attending St Paul's School in London. He also attended the Slade School of Art, intending to become an. He converted to Catholcism in his 20s and dabled in theology. It was not until 1900 that his formidable literary career. A publisher asked him to write articles on art criticism. He found writing stimulating and that soon became his chosen vocation. Not only is Chesteron the author of an emense body of work, but those works span subjects perhaps more varied than any other 20th century author. He wrote both serious and popular articles, but his engaging wit ahd humor permeate much of his work. He wrote about world affairs, government, political life, economics, philosophy, theology and many other topics including a well garded serious of nystery novels (Father Brown).
Chiang Kai-shek (China, 1887-19 ): Chiang was a Chinese general who became prominent in the Kuomintang (1923). He led the Northern Expedition to unite China (1926-28). He first cooperated with the Communists, but broke with them (1927). He dominated the Chinese Goivernment (1928-48). He led Chinese resistance after the Japanese invasion (1937). His Government was accudsed of corruption. After World War II, The Communists defeated him in the Civil War. He and his followers fled to Taiwan (1948).
Churchill, John - (England, 1897-1972): John Albert Edward Spencer Churchill was born in 1897. He was commonly known as Bert. His parents were Charles Richard John Spencer Churchill (9th Duke of Marlborough) and Consuelo Vanderbilt (Duchess of Marlborough). Bert became the 10th Duke of Marlborough. He and his family were painted by noted American portratist John Singer Sargent in a noted painting by at Blenheim. He and his brother appear to have worn velvet suits, but a photogrph shows the boys wearing longpants single blazer suits.
Churchill, John - (England, 1650-1722): John Curchill, the First Duke of Marlbourough, was one of the greatest commanders in British military history. He was a great strategist and a shrewd diplomat who led English and allied armies in important victories over the French, most notably at Blenheim (1704), Ramillies (1706), and Oudenaarde (1708). He played a key role in thwarting the designs of Louis XIV. Wellington an Montgomery are better known today, but it was Marlbourough who managed to prevail even though the weight of superior numbers andresources were not in his favor. His critics charge that he had an inordinate love of wealth and power and had inconstant political loyalties. One of his descents, Winston Churchill, also played a prominent role in European history.
Churchill, Peregrine - (UK,1912?- ): Nephew of Sir Winston and son of Winston's brother Jack. I saw a nice picture of him with his grandmother Jennie. He was about 2 years old. Jennie is holding him and he has bangs and is togged out in a sweet little frock with lace frills. I'd say the picture was taken about 1915 or so. He remembers his grandmother with some tenderness. She took timeout from a high society event to encourage his piano music. He only saw her angry once. At a hospital for wounded veterans, she boxed the ears of a Boy Scout who was not minding his duties.
Churchill, Winston -(UK, 1874-196?): British statesman and author, considered to be the greatest of all British primeministers for his role in leading resistance to the NAZis before and during World War II. He was born at Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire and had a turbulent childhood. His family was one of the most elustrous in England, a descendent of the Duke of Marlborough. His father was a brilliant parlimentarian who considered his son slow and a disappointment. His mother was the beautiful American heiris. He was educated at Harrow and Sandhurst, the British military academy.
Claxton, Philander Priestly (1862-1957): <! P.P. Claxton > Noted American educator. He has been described as the Horace Mann of the South. Unlike the North, the South did not develop an important public school system before the Civil War. And even after the War, the Southern states were slow to support public education. Claxton born furing the Civil War, was the leading southern Educator in the late-19th and early-20th century. Faced by legislators and voters hesitant to adequately find schools, he constantly pointed out the cost of iliteracy and the importance of public education in a democratic society. He played a major role in improving the education of southern teachers. He was the first important Federal Commissioner of Education (1913?-21). He promoted vocational education and plans for rehabilitating World War I veterans.
Clem, Johnny - (US, 1851-1937): John Joseph Klem, often refered to as Johnny Clem, was probably the most famous boy who served in the Civil War. He is known to hostory as the "Drummer Boy of Chickamauga" and also "Johnny Shiloh." He was one of the youngest, but not the youngest to do so. Like most younger boys who participated in the War, he served as a musician. The Federal Army alone had places for 40,000 muscians. Many of the boys given the turmoil of battle became involved in the actual fighting. Johhny was the most famous Union boy soldier. He became a drummer in the 22nd Massachusetts Infantry at age eleven, and was promoted to serve as a mounted orderly on the staff of General George H. Thomas, with the "rank" of lance sergeant.
Clift, Montgomery - (US, 1920-66): Nontgomery was born in Omaha, Nebraska during 1920. His mother was Ethel Fogg, known as Sunny. His father was William Brooks Clift, a banker with familiy ties to the South. Montgomery had a twin sister (Roberta) and an older brother Brooks. <! who was a husband of Eleanor Clift, the columnist and political commentator, and father of their 3 children; Brooks also had a child by the late actress Kim Stanley.> The family was well to do and Sunny took the children to Europe to soak up culture. The Wall Street Crash (1929) affected the family's situation and they returned to America. Their peers thought their accents and foreign terms they used rather snooty, creating some problems for them. Montgomery had a disorganized education, but took an interest in acting. He was by age 13 on the Broadway stage. Clift had a career as a child star, but on Broadway not a Hollywood film career. The plays he appeared in were not very successful, but he was noted by imporant directors. He made his first Hollywood film with John Wayne, "Red River" (1948). Clift in the same year received his first Academy Award nomination for Best Actor for "The Search". Clift was a sensation in his Hollywood debutes. Hollywood commentators saw in Clift a very different leaing man than the standard pre-War Hollywood leads. Clift was handsome like other Hollywood leads, but he was also sensitive and vulnerable. This was different. Hollywwod commentatirs theorize that this image was appealing because many women would want to mother him.
take care of. He had a highly successful film career, performing in many Oscar-nominated roles and becoming a matinee idol for his good looks. His love scenes with Elizabeth Taylor in A Place in the Sun (1951) set a new standard for romance in cinema. His roles in A Place in the Sun the 1953 classic From Here to Eternity and The Young Lions (1958) are considered signatures of his career.
He turned down the starring roles in Sunset Boulevard and East of Eden.
He hid his homosexuality and turned to alcoholism and drug use.
In 1956, while filming Raintree County, he smashed his car into a tree after leaving a party. Elizabeth Taylor kept him from choking to death by removing two teeth lodged in his throat. She had been co-starring in the movie and happened to be at the party. He needed reconstructive surgery on his face and returned after several weeks to finish the film. Taylor has noted that she was in love with Clift, and would have married him had he only asked. However, his conflict with his sexual identity is believed to have prevented him from proposing.
Clift later appeared in Wild River, a 1960 film listed in the United States National Film Registry.
Clift was nominated for a best supporting actor Oscar for Judgment at Nuremberg in a role that only took up seven minutes of screen time.
Montgomery Clift died in 1966 at the age of 45 of a heart attack brought on by his severe drug and alcohol addictions. He was interred in the Quaker Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York.
Cohn, Roy - (U.S.,1927-86): Chief counsel for Senator McCarthy's Senate investigating committee during the red-baiting period of the 1950s. Roy was apparently a precocious mama's boy. I don't know any of the details, but the subject is apparently dealt with in two recent biographies: The Autobiography of Roy Cohn by Sidney Zion (Lyle Stuart, 1987?) and Citizen Cohn by Nicholas von Hoffman (Doubleday, 1987).
Confucius (China, 551-479 BC): Confucius is the most important Chinese thinker. He is various described as a teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher. His name literally translated means Master Kong (K'ung-fu-tzu or Kongfuzi). He was born in the state of Lu located on the Shandong peninsula in northeastern China (551 BC). He was so imortant in China that many traditions developed thatare purely apocryphal. It is difficult to separate fact from fiction. He is often compared to Socretes in the West. Confucius is often seen as the central fifure in the development of social and political philosophy that becam the basis for the development of subsequent Chinese thought. He founded the Ru School of Chinese thought and the philosophical traditopn which came to bear his name. Only framents remain of his teachings which are preserved on the Analects (Lunyu). He lived in a times torn by war. He was thus concerned with improving government and society. He central tennent was that the problems of the day was a lack of virtue. One of his most important lesons as 'In praise ofsage kings'. He livd a long life, dieing (479 BC).
Considine, Bob -(US, 19??-??): In a biography of Bob Considine
there is a photo of him with long ringlets and wearing a Little Lord Fauntleroy suit at 7 years of age. His older sister remarks that "except for the Fauntleroy suit he wore to have his picture taken before his curls were cut, he wore their (his sisters;) outgrown dresses." I thought this was interesting because we are always wondering when boys wore these suits. Apparently Bob only wore his Fauntleroy suit once.
Constantine (Rome, 272-337): Constantine sealed his control of the Roman Empire with his victory of the Milvian Bridge (312). He gained this victory over a much larger force, reportedly by invoking divine intervention, thedetails of which vary somewhat. There is no doubt. however, that Constantine is one of the key figures in history. It might be thought that Christianity may have eventually become the dominant religion of the Roman Empire. This of course is possible. Despite periodic repressions, the Church was growing. It was not a historical surity. Contantine while not yet a declared Christian or probably greatly concerned about religious matters, began the process by which the early Church became the dominant relgion of the Emipre in only a few decades and eventually Europe. Historians have argued that Chritianity was a factor in the collapse of the Empire. That may or not be true, but what is in arguable, is that the Church was the primary vessel in which the classical tradition survived the fall of the Empire and was transferred to medieval Europe and played a major role in shaping the modern world.
Cooper, Gary - (U.S., 1901?- ): Gary Cooper was one of the most popular film heros during the 1940s and earkly 50s. He acted in many westerns. One of the best known films is "High Noon" with Grace Kelly, certainly one of my favorite westerns. He was raised as a boy on a ranch in Montana. We note a portrait of him at age 2 years wearing a broad-brimmed sailor hat and a tunic suit. His mother came to think he needed to be civilized. He looked very civilized at age 2, but apparently was developing wild ways. His mother when Gary was 8 yeats old sent to live with his grandmother in England (1909). He was enrolled in Dunstable School. The school uniform consisted of short trousers. He left in 1912 to return to Montana. He recalls, "I talked like a genuine Britisher, and my clothes were a riot. I must confess, the girls and the teacher rather liked my short trousers, my Eton collar and my straw hat. But the boys went mad. They said I was a 'cissy,' and got socked for saying it." [Jeffrey Meyers. Gary Cooper: American Hero (William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1998]
Copernicus, Nicolaus - (Poland/Germany, 1473-1543): Nicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance mathematician and astronomer who took the dangerous stepp in violation of Church tachings by conceivg a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at its center. Nicolaus Copernicus was born in the city of Toruń (Thorn) in the province of Royal Prussia, in the Kingdom of Poland (1473). He and his family lived along the cultural divide of Poland and Germany. Thus it id difficult to categorize him as either Polish or Germany, although he and his family often supported the Polish Crown. His wealty family enabled him to study , studied canon law, mathematics, and medicine at Cracow, Bologna, Rome, Padua, and Ferrara. He practised as a physician, classics scholar, translator, governor, diplomat and economist. Almost los because of his fame as an astronemr his quantity theory of money, a key concept in the development of economics (1517). This was followed by the formulation of what is now known as Gresham's law. It is his astronomical theory of heliocentrism for which he is best known. Because it was counter to church teachings and the Reformation led to religious violence and te rpressive Counter Refotrmation, Coprnicus delayed publication. Another factor was that the passions of the Reformation in Germany were less intense in Poland. His eventual publication of solar system model in De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres) (1543) is considered a major step in the development of modern science. Copernicus was not the first to conceive of heliocentrism which was first conceived of by classical sholars. . He is, however, the first to present it with a basis of sound mathematics. Only near his death, however, did he dare publish his findings.
Coward, Noël Peirce - (England, 1899-1973): Noël Coward was born in
in Teddington, Middlesex, a London suburb. One biographer we think described him best, "Noel Coward virtually invented the concept of Englishness ...." His father was Arthur Sabin Coward (1856–1937), a not very sucessful piano salesman. His mother was Violet Agnes Coward (1863–1954) daughter of Henry Gordon Veitch, a captain and surveyor in the Royal Navy. Ab=nd there was an army cinnection. His mother's cousin, Rachel Veitch, was the mother of World War I Field-Marshal Douglas Haig, the major British military figure on the Wesern Friont. Noël second of their three sons born close together. He proved to be an amazingly gifted cultural figure, active in the created arts. He began as an actor at 6 years of age and then added artist (painter), author, dramatist, composer, and lyracist to his accomplishments. The British loved him best for his wit and he was at the center of the inter-war cultural dynamic. It was an generation shattered by World War I and then thrown into the Roaring Twenties. His greatest innovatiom was using naturalistic conversation in his plays, a major reason they continue to be popular in the 21st century. And he dealt honestly with controversial topics, including homosexuality, showing him way ahead of his times. He has been called the first British pop star. He explified urbane culture, but unlike American coastal elites did not dislike his country or the men and women who protected it. His World War II film, 'In which we serve' (1942) has to be one of the finest films about the Royal Navy. His urbanbe humor was a bit old fashioned after the War ad he opriceeded to reinvent himself. A testament to his talent is that his songs and plays are still popular today.
Coulouris, George - (England, 1903-89): George Coulouris was a noted actor especially during the 1930s and 40s. I recall him especially as the heavy in "Wach on te Rhine" in which he played a Romanian. The family was actually of Greek ancestry. George as a boy recalls being teased by his mates as being a "greasy Greek". He grew up in limited circumstances, but his mother was uinsistent on entering the middle class. An early portrait of George give the impression that he was a little rich boy. The fact that he grew up in strained circumstances should be born in mind when interpreting old photographs of unknown provinance.
Cox, Palmer - (Canada/U.S., 1840-1924): Palmer Cox was born in Quebec, Canasa, but his career is primarily associated with the United States. He began life working for the railroad, but then decided to become an illustrator and studied drawing in San Francisco. He is best known as a children's writer and illustrator, creating the famous Brownie characters. The Cox Brownie stories appeared in the famous St. Nicholas Magazine and the Ladies Home Journal. His his series of funny verse cartoons about the mischievous, but kind-hearted Brownies proved enormously popular. His importance is more related to his genius in advertising and marketing.
Cox, Wally- (U.S., 19 ): The American comedian provides some interesting details in his book (My life as a Small Boy). He complains about being small and then writes, "But why couldn't I affect some of the badges of manhood which are simply purchased at stores? At the time this problem seemed most pressing to me, I was wearing short pants, which are second only to diapers as damning evidence of youth. Why could I not take the next step up the ladder of wearing apparel? The next step would be knickers, which are one of the oddest-looking getups ever hung on the human form. Twin bags on a string-they looked like clown outfits that had shrunk alarmingly. But they could have been any shape in the world. I would have wanted them all the same, because they were worn by boys older than I.
Some of the boys actually wore long pants, which I longed for but could not hope for. Sure enough, these boys had the sort of personalities that went with longies and that I coveted--they were snotty smart alecks. Lucky guys. They treated me like dirt, and I no more resented it than a serf resents such behavior on the part of the Lord. It was their birthright. But I was too young not to ask for what I was absolutely positive I could not have. I asked my mother for long pants. She said, "No," very simply, in a voice charged not at all with emotion. "Well, the, could I at least have knickers, as long as you are buying me new pants anyway?" I asked not unreasonably. After all I had put in several years service in shorts. And day by day the ranks of boys wearing knickers--yes, even long pants--were swelling, and I seemed to be, by contrast, actually falling behind instead of gaining in the race for manhood. "No," she said in a manner indicating that she was fully prepared to be asked why not. "Why not?" I asked, lips trembling in an effort to suppress manly tears. "You're too young to have knickers," she said and went back to her sewing. Her reason wasn't much of a reason, but it was her reason, so it had to be good enough. To say the least, it didn't satisfy me. It made me feel that I had no ally in the struggle. I did as much pouting and grouching as I was allowed to get away with, which was very little, and pressed my program as much as possible all the way up to shopping day, into the store and up to the man who sold us the new pair of shorts. Now if you can stand it, let me tell you about these shorts. Not only were they identical to last year's shorts in all negative respects, but, as if to mock me and insult on to injury, they had the gall to lack one positive feature that my old pants had: they actually, literally, truly, had no rear pockets at all! No rear pockets! A demotion! And these monstrous pants had to last for a year. The day these accursed pants arrived was one of the darkest of my career. I have always been a man of action when my back was up to the wall. This time, I had been pushed to far. I took my new pants into the bathroom. Darkly I took the nail scissors out of the medicine cabinet. My hands firm with resolution, I cut a dandy gash in the seat of the pants. I put them on and ran out to my mother, announcing that I had unfortunately ripped them and agreeing in advance that it was awful that we had to throw them out because they were brand new. Without a moment's hesitation or a word of explanation she removed the pants, applied physical pain to an area that they had just been more or less covering, and sewed them up. Then she went back to her housekeeping. And so I was to wear no rear pockets for a year. A total of two pockets was all I had, both front. Four pockets was a marvelous number, but not too high to hope for, and three was absolute minimum decency for any boy worthy of the name. She might as well have sent me to school smeared with mud, as far as my feeling of social acceptability was concerned. I made it through that year, but not without some loss of growth. If I have a boy, he can go to school in cowboy pants if he wants to.
Crawford, Christopher - (US, 19 ): His sister told all in Mommy Dearest. Particularly outrageous was the way she dealt with Christopher, especially binding him into bed at night with a halter so he couldn't get up. The halter was also pictured in the film. This went on until he was about 12 years old. She also diapered the children, but I'm not sure until what age this continued. (See "Kirk Douglas" for confirmation.) One thing about Joan is that she always had the children nicely dressed. Christopher wore short pants, but there weren't a lot of details in the book. One scene in the film had him in very smart short shorts with a blazer and white knee socks. I would guess that her outfits were another reason Christopher finally left.
Crompton, Richmal - (England, 1890-69): Richmal Crompton's William Brown is the one of the two most famous schoolboy in English literature. William is often referred to as "Just William" after the title of the first book introducing him to the British public who quickly fell in love with him. The 11-year old school boy soon came to represent the archetype British schoolboy, inquiring, adventurous, and constantly wanting to launch another, usually illconceived, outdoor adventure. Richmal Crompton Lamburn was born in 1890 at Bury in Lancashire. Crompton taught school and was a keen observer of the foibles of small children. She was able to cleverly and sympathetically intepret the antics of mischevious boys and the motives behind their seemingly irrational behavior. She published over 80 titles, but they were not all in the Just William series. She wrote many romantic novels which she considered more importanat than the Just William books--which she considered to be a bit of a daliance at the time. William surely would have regarded these novels as "dreadfully mushy". While her romantic novels are now generally forgotten, it is Crompton's comedic genius that we now remember. It is interesting that a lady has crafted these ever so telling glimpses of boyhood. I supose that men sometimes forget how they felt as boys. She must have been an observent school mistress. We thought it was here that she learned so much about small boys. A HBC reader explains that she was a teacher but at a girls school. Perhaps this is where the Violet Elizabeth Bott character came from. The antics of William were inspired by her younger brother Jack.
Crosby, Bing - (US): Bing Crosby was one of the most beloved American singers. Not only was he known as the country's preeminent crooner, but he appeared in several important movies. He had four boys from his first marriage who were often pictured dressed alike. Bing apparently was very strict disiplinarian. Gary has described in detail the brutal treatment to which he and his brothers were subjected by singer father Bing Crosby. He says that were countless rules and regulations for the boys. Violation were cause for a variety of punishment from deprivation of privliges to whippings. There were so many rules that it was just not possible to violate some. As a result there was constant tension in the house. Bing was not wild, but very methodical about discipline. Bing apparently mellowed after marrying his second wife Catherine. Gary says that he and his brothers would often be dressed up in nice outfits for visitors or press people. There are several shots of the boys in shorts. It would be back in jeans and work clothes after they left. Bing two boys with Catherine were dressed in short pants suits and knee socks.
Cushing, Richard James - (US,1895-1970): Richard Cardinal Cushing was born in South Boston (1895). His parents were Irish immigrants. He was one of the most important prelates of the Roman Catholic Church. He was Archbishop of Boston (1944) and served in that post until he died. He was elevated to cardinal (1958). He was a highly effective fundraiser and builder of churches, schools, and other Catholic institutions. Cushing was in many ways the major face of the Catholic Church in America. He played an important role in bringing the Catholic Church into the American mainstream. America when Cushing was born was still a very Protestant country. Al Smith showed when he ran for president that many American still question the loyalty of Catholic (1928). Befire he died, Catholic Senator John Kennedy was elected president. Cushing began that transition in Boston. He worked hard at developing good relations with the entire Boston elite, includung the Protestant estavlishment. He worked at ending the traditional animosity with the Potestant upper-class that had dominated the city. Cushing managed to build rewarding relationships with Jews, Protestants, and civic institutions outside the Catholic community. He played a role in assisting Senator Kennedy refute fears of papal interference in American politics.
Cushing was a high energy prelte. He actively met with people from all walks of life daily and spoke frequently to various gatherings. He has been described as a "fun-loving, informal, and outgoing. He looked rather like a tough, handsome, Irish cop and behaved more like a ward politician than a high church cleric." [Nasaw, pp. 625-27.]
The major criticism of Cushing was his business acumen. This led him to found and build institutions that the Church did not have the financial ability to support.
Curtis, Tony - (US,1925?- ): The actor was born of poor Hungarian Jewish parents and had a hard time as a boy growing up in New York. His real name was Bernard Schwartz. His mother was unstable and apparently beat him severly, which he says made him ill at ease with women. He was never sure whether she was going to hug or hit him. He also was teased a lot at school because he was Jewish. He is described as a wild, hungry kid. Details are available in Tony Curtis : The Autobiography.
Curzon, George - (England, 1859-1925): George Curzon was the eldest son of Baron Curzon. He was born in 1859 and proved to be a brilliant
student. He became a force in the Conservative Party and served as Viceroy of India. He introduced reforms angering Lord Kitchner--head of the British Army in India. Before and after World War I, he led the fight against womens' suferage which is part of the reason he never achieved his goal of becoming primeminister.
Figure 2.--This portrait of the future Lord Curzon was taken in 1865. George was 6 years old at the time and wears a white or light-colored kilt suit.
Nasaw, David. The Patriarch: The Remarkable Life and Turbulent Times of Joseph P. Kennedy (2012).
Yenne, Bill. Julius Caesar: Lessons in Leadership from the Great Cionqueror (2012), 224p.
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Created: March 6, 1999
Spell checked: August 2, 1999
Last updated: 11:32 PM 3/13/2019