Biographical Details on Boys' Clothing Styles (M-R)
Many famous and not so famous men remember the clothing and hair styles they wore as boys. Not so many years ago it was all up to mom how junior was dressed. In some cases, especially in the late 19th and early 20th Century, moms in Europe and America let their imaginations run wild, choosing elaborate Fautleroy and kilt outfits for their darling sons. The wife in affluent families rarely worked and thus she had a great deal of time, and in some cases the assistance of nannies and governesses, to see to the care and dressing of their children. The results were very little boys kept in dresses. Ever after they passed out of dresses, little and not little boys done up in dress-like tunics and kilts and lacey Fautleroy suits and kilts as well as more manly sailor suits. Biographical details on individuals from M-R are listed on this page. It is a page that is still being developed. If you have any historical information to add, do let me hear from you.
MacArthur, Douglas (United States, 18??-19??): An HBC contributor commented that General Douglas MacArthur was raised as a girl. HBC stresses that it is a misnomber to say that MacArthur and other children born in the 19th Century were raised as girls.
It is true that he wore dresses as a little boy. But this was the case for most boys, especially boys from families of comfortable circumstance. This does not mean they were raised as girls. McArthur grew up on western miltary posts and had quite a vigorous boyhhood. It is true, however, that his mother looked after him even as an older boy, even taking an apartment at West Point.
MacNeil, Robert (Canada, 1931- ): The PBS news anchor grew up in Nova Scotia. He was the eldest son of an eccentric families of anglophiles. He remembers his father as being mostly absent during the war years and was mostly raised by his mother who he paints in romantic terms in his book (Wordstruck: A Memoir, Viking, 1989). A picture in the book shows him at 8 years, a wonderfully boyish little guy in a smart suit-- surely it was a short pants suit, but you can't tell. His mother raised him on a diet of English children's books, Winnie the Pooh, Peter Pan, etc.
Mackenzie, Compton (England, 1883-1972): Sir Edward Montague Compton was a noted novelist and journalist who became a strong proponent of Scottish nationalism. He was born in West Hartlepool on January 17, 1883, the son of actor, Edward Compton. His birth was
entered in the parish register under his father's family name of Mackenzie but throughout his life he was always known to his friends as "Monty". In his memoir he recalls having to wear a Fauntleroy suit to a party. He was educated at St Paul's School and Magdalen College, Oxford. He studied for the English Bar, but because of his home background he was interested in the theatre and by a writing career.
Mandela, Nelson (South Africa, 1918-2013): Nelson Mandela is one of the important figures in the long, tortured history of freedom. His father was a Thembu nobel who gave up his claims to become a Chistian and a lawyer. From a young age he became interested in freedom for his people. He became a lawyer like his father, founding South Africa's first black law firm and worked to resist injustic through the legal system and non-violent action. When increasing police violence made this impossible, he led the African National Congress' violent action campaign -- Umkhonto weSizwe (Spear of the Nation). He is described as a black nationalist, but in the history of freedom he was much more. The Nelson Mandela Foundation explains, "Nelson Mandela never wavered in his devotion to democracy, equality and learning. Despite terrible provocation, he never answered racism with racism. His life is an inspiration to all who are oppressed and deprived; and to all who are opposed to oppression and deprivation." [Nelson Mndela Foundation]
He became the first black president of South Africa (1994–99). His negotiations in the early 1990s with South African Pres. F.W. de Klerk helped end the country’s apartheid system of racial segregation and ushered in a peaceful transition to majority rule. Mandela and de Klerk were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1993 for their efforts. Unlike many recipienrs, Nelson Mandela truly earned it.
Mao Zedong (China, 1893-1976): Mao Zedong before the turn-of the 21st century usually transliterated as Mao Tse-tung is usually reffered to in China as Chairman Mao. He was a Chinese Communist revolutionary who fought a long and bitter battle with Nationakist leader Chaing kai-check. Mao did not found the Chinese Communist Party, but over time gained control of it and defeated Chiang and the Nationalists after World War II, founding the People's Republic of China, which he governed as Chairman of the Communist Party (1949). His Marxist-Leninist theories, military strategies and political policies are collectively known as Marxism-Leninism-Maoism or in China Mao Zedong Thought. Chinese youths carried arund Little Red Books so they could memorize Mao Thought--about as Orwellian as one can imagine. Mao created a strong Chinese state, but his rule proved disaterous for the China people, presiding over both massive loss of life and and the further empoverishment of a people ho made great sacrifices during the War with Japan. Historians often argue as to who was the greatest villan in hitory. Hitler often comes at the top of the list. Measured in terns of people killed, there is no doubt it was Mao, almost all of his victimes were Chinese. In discussons with Chinese people, we find a disagreenent over classifying Mao a s a historical villan because they insist that he did not mean to kill so many people. This in part true, but it is also true that he did not care. Fir Mao his gials and ideology were more important than people. The position of the Chinese Government today is that Mao committed 'errors', but his accomplishments more than compensated for those errors. No one one knows the full extent of those errors, but the impact of Mao's mass killing probably resulted in 25 million deaths.
Marceau?, Marcel -- (France,1920?- ): The French mime was active in the Underground during World War II. He helped smuggle Jewish children to Switzerland. In an interview he mentioned that he looked and dressed as a Boy Scout in shorts so the Germans thought he was a child.
Martin, Dean -- (U.S.,1917): The singer was born to Italian immigrants in 1917 as Dino Martini. They lived a comfortable life as their father who was a barber provided well for them. He and his older brother were nicely outfitted in sailor suits. Raised in Steubenville, Ohio, rather a tough steel town. His mother, perhaps with a little European flair, must have dressed her boys well as the other boys called him a sissy because of the way he was dressed. He was a good fighter though and quickly dispelled that notion.
Marx, Karl -- (Germany, 1818- ): Karl Heinrich Marx was born into a well-to-do middle-class family in Trier (1818). Trier was, as result of the Napoleonic Wars in the Prussian Rhineland at the time. His father was a lawyer, but came from a long line of destinguished Rabbis. He had to convert to Protestantism in order to wprk as alawyer. Karl entered the University of Bonn to study law at the age of 17 years. Here he became engaged to Jenny von Westphalen, whose father, Baron von Westphalen, convinced Marx to read Romantic literature and Saint-Simonian politics. A year later, Marx's father moved him to the University of Berlin where he became fascinated by Hegelianism He was influenced by Ludwig Feurbach. Marx from an early point was attracted to G.W.F. Hegel's dialectics and became convinced of the idea of historical inevitability--essentially proceeding to the point of converting history and economics to a science. Marx wasnot satified with the idealism and abstract thought of philosophy. Rather he concluded that the force and material base of economics drove history and could be studied and predicted like a natural science. He diverged from Hegel's focus on the philosophy of law. Marx saw civil society as the sphere to be studied in order to understand the historical development of man. Marx was awarded his doctorate at Jena writing a disertation on the materialism and atheism of Greek atomists (1841). After completeting his uiversity studies he worked for the Rheinische Zeitung, a radical Cologne newspaer. He also began working on a materialist theory of history. He published extensively during his lifetime. He moved to Paris (1843) where he began writing for other radical newspapers. It is here that he first met Friedrich Engels. The two become lifelong friend and collaborator. The Revolutin of 1848 and rhe Rise of Napoleon III changed the political envirinment in France. Napoleon expelled Marx as he had enough French radicals to deal with. Marx moved to London with his wife and chilren where he did most of his research and writing. His most important works were 'The Communist Manifesto' (1848), published while still in Paris and Das Kapital (1867–1894). Marx's work in economics and history was the first systimized attempt to the reltionhop between laobr and capital, and highly influential subsequent economic thought. He became a tireless campaigner for socialism and a significant figure in the International Workingmen's Association. Marx's theories have been proven wrong in practice. The wealthy countries of the world are all liberal democracies with strong capitalist sectors. These countries which adopted Communism, either on their own, or through Soviet occupation proved to be not only poor with low living standards, but terible abusers of human rights, many guilty of mass murder. Even so the ideology of socilism is so appealing that it contiunues to attract ardent devotees.
Mason, Jackie -- (U.S., ): Jewish comedian who grew up in New York was raised in an Orthodox Jewish family. His father was a rabbi and was determined that each of his sons also be one. Jackie didn't want to and [sorry my document was corrupted here]
Figure 1.--The class picture here is undated, but looks to hav been taken about 1935. A HBC reader indicates that this is an origional photograph from an Italian school that Marcello Mastroianni attended. It is unmistakable which boy he is (5th from left, top row).
Mastroianni, Marcello - (Italy, 1924-96): Marcello Mastroianni is one of the most famous Italian actors. We have littl information about his childhood clothes, but do know he wore smocks to school as was common in Italy during the 1930s. He is one of the few male Italian actors to avhieve the same international recognition of female statrs like Sophia Loren and Gina Lollobrigida. He appeared in over 80 films, including some of the best known Italian films. He became the prototype Latin lover in Italian movies.
Maxwell, Gavin - (Scotland, 1914-69): Gavin Maxwell was a remarkable person who led a event-filled life. He was born in Galloway (southwest Scotland) and grew up with his two brothers and sisters in an isolated country estate. His family was titled and he grew up in comfortable circumstance. He was habitually dressed in kilts. He has written a lovely discription of his charmed childhood and rather unhappy school experiences. Like many boys his age, he lost his father in World War I. It was in Scotland during his younger years that he developed an interest in wildlife. He is best known of course for his captivating book, The Ring of Bright Water.
McKay family (U.S.): The McKay dynasty was founded by John who was born in Dublin, Ireland. He had no money when he arrived in America (1840). He quit school to support the family. He eventually went to California and made his forture in Virginia City silver mines. His children were raiised in great luxury in Paris and London. His granddaughter Ellin married Irving Berlin, against her father's wishes because Berlin was Jewish. (Berlin's family had been driven out of Russia like so many other Jews by Tsar Alexander III's pogroms. A portrait shows Ellen with her brother and sister anout 1912.
Mellon, Paul (U.S., 19??-99): Paul was the son of one of the richest men in America and Treasury Secretary--Andrew Mellon. Mellon was also anoted philanthropistwho left a bequest that funded the Natioanl Gallery of Art on the Mall in Washington, DC. Paul was misweable as a child. He was raised by a distant father and a unaffectionate mother. One account describes Paul's father as "ice cube cold". Anthat was not just to acquaintances, but also to his son. As an adult, Paul wrote "I do not know, and I doubt if anyone will ever know, why Father was so seemingly devoid of feeling and so tightly contained in his lifeless, hard shell." His parents quarled and the marriage ended when he and his sister Ailsa were quite young. He was supervised by nannies and governesses. I understand that he was dressed quite formally, but have no details at this time. As an adult, he decided against banking as a career and playded a major role in the development of the National Gallary.
Mercantor, Gerard (Flanders, 1512- )): Gerard Mercantor is probably the most famous geographer in history. Hewas norn in Flanders during 1512 as Gerard Kremer. Hisparents were poor, but an uncle who was a priest saw to his education. By age 7 he could read and write as ell as speak Latin. Hi uncle arranged for a scolarship at age 15 to a religious boarding school here he learned penmanship and theology. He changed his name to Mercabtor, meaning merchant in Latin. He then studies grammar and philsophy at at Louvain University. He behan work as an apprentice engraver. and developed a relationship with the Gemma Frisius, a brilliant physician scientist who tutored him in mathmactics and astronomy. Mercantor went on to crate innovative map projections and grids. He virtully created the idea of an Atlas, personally originating the name. [Crane]
Meyer family: The best know member of the Meyer family is Katherine Graham. Her father made a fortune in chemicals and then bought a not very sucessful newspaper, the Washington Post. It was Katherine's trouble husband and Katherine herself tjhat built it into one of America's greatest newspapers. Katherine was very close to her brother Bill, wgo warned her about her husband before she mairred him. Bill as a boy wore white sailor suits and knicker as a boy.
Milch, Erhard (Germany, 1892-1972): Field Marshal Erhard Milch was second in command to Göring in the Luftwaffe. We are not sure how his childhood, but it is one of the biographies HBC wants to pursue. He was an ambitious man and much more than Göring, the real architect of the the Luftwaffe. He also founded Lufthansa, the German airline. Even though his father was Jewish, he served in a prmonent position--presumably under Göring's patronage. This was highly unusual. Under the NAZI race laws, people that were half Jewish were classified as Jews. Even if only one-quarter Jewish, as a Mischling he would have been diqualified for any prominent public position. Milch did not admit to this. His family history was investigated by the Gestapo. Göring resolved the issue having Milch's mother sign an affidavit that her husband was not Erhard's real father. The authorities were thus able to certify Milch as a 'honorary' Aryan. He eventually fell out with Göring and worked with Speer. He must have known about the Holocaust, but we can find no indication he was disturbed by it. He was involved in the use of slave labor for German aircraft production. After the War, he was convicted of war crimes in the Nuremberg trials and sentenced to life imprisonment, becuse of his involvement with slave labor. He was released in June 1954 and wrote The Rise and Fall of the Luftwaffe.
Milne, Christopher Robin - (UK, 1920-96): Christopher was an only child and raised in London. He was the inspiration for his father's charming childrens' books. The first was When We Were Very Young (1924), inspired by 4-year old Christopher. The boy's affection for a bear named Winnie at the London Zoo became the basis for Winnie the Poo (1926), Now We Are Six (1927), and The House at Poo Corner (1928). Family photographs show how closely his father modeled the fictions Christopher Robin on his son,: the same wide, inquisitive brown eyes; the same cropped mop top--looking very girlish; the same gingham smock and sandals. He was kept in the smock even at eight. He was small and shy as a child. It was very hard to tell he was a boy, even his features looked girlish. The series was brought to film by Disney. The original illustrations in the books depicted Christopher faithfully in his gingham smock and girlish hair, but the Disney films had Christopher Robin in a definitely boyish hair cut and shorts--although they did in some versions have him wearing Mary Jane-type sandals and white socks. (Some recent versions actually have him in long pants!) His father devoted a career to making up stories for and about his son. The charges, however, that in reality he was apparently a very cold, distant father. Christopher was cared for by a nannie and brought to formal visits with his parents at meal times. There were apparently three rather formal visits daily. While not that unusual for affluent parents at the time, Christopher later complained that his father's heart "remained buttoned up all through his life." He eventually became confused between his own childhood and the fictional Christopher Robin. he could not remember, for example, if it was the real or fictional Christopher Robin who invented the game of "pooh sticks" in which sticks were dropped from a wooden bridge into a stream. He loved to sew and knit and gloried in taking clocks apart. He writes later that he was just rescued as a child from becoming effeminate, referring to his smocks and sewing. As was common at the time for affluent parents, Christopher was sent off to boarding school at about 8 years old where he was taunted about sissy Christopher Robin and Winnie the Poo by his school mates. Many of his schoolmates had grown up having the Christopher Robin books read to them as small children. He learned to box to defend himself. He later wrote several books describing the impact of the series's immense popularity on his life: The Enchanted Places (1974), The Path Through the Trees (1979); and The Hallow on the Hill (1982). He described his father as a man using his young son's childhood to stave off his own middle age. His criticisms of his farther seemed a bit overdone. I don't know much about his mother and nannies. Would be interesting to know.
Milton, John - (UK, 1608-74): John Milton, the author of Paradise Lost is consiered by many to be the greatest poet of the 17th century. He is note for his powerful, rhetoric prose and the eloquence of his poetry. Milton also wrote pamphlets defending civil and religious rights. Milton was raised in a wealthy family and received an extensive educatiin. His family's wealth accorded him the opportunity to devote himself to writing.
Mishima, Yukio - Japan (1925-70): Mishima is one of the most famous of Japanese 20th-century writers. His life was especially dramatic because he ended it with ritual suicide ("supuku"). The suicide is of course the climax of the film. Mishima came from a very aristocratic Japanese family. He continues to be a ignimatic icons of modern Japan, but his books are so rooted in traditional values. He was a strange combination of international literary darling, accomplished novelist and playright, a health enthuiast and body builder,
and if that was not enough, the founder of a private army in pacifist Japan. He advocated the samurai code. He carried out an elaborate plan for his own death. He occupied an army garrison with soldiers of his privare army and then committed ritual suicide. His life in told in a wnderful Japanese film, Mishima: My Life in Four Chapters.
Mohmmed / Muhammed (Arabia, c570-632): Mohammad or Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim was born in Mecca in the late-6th century, although the precise date is unknown (probably about 570). Mohmmed founded Islam, one of the three greath Abrahamic religions of the Middlle East and unified the war-prone Arab tibes under the banner of Islam. Muslims considered him to be the last and final prophet sent by God to mankind. He wrote the Koran, believed by Muslims to have been divinely inspired. Muslims see Mohammed as having restored the unaltered original monotheistic faith of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and the Abrahamic prophets in the form of Islam. The ethical system he established in the Koran rejeject much of Jesus' humaitarian and tolerant teachings in the New Testament and restablished the older more harsh ethical system of the Middle East set out in the Jewsish Old Testament and older Hamurabi Code. This was the moral system prevalent among the Arab tribes, prhaps he moderated it simewhat. Unlike Jesus, Mohammed was not just a religious figure, but a statesman and war leader. He died in Medina (832). Before this he began the Arab outburst from the Arabian Peninsula which would remake the Middle East and North Africa. Mohammed in such a revered figure in the Muslim world, especially the Arab woirld, that any crtiticism or even physical representation of him is considered offensive, even blasfemous. All Muslim majority countries have heresy/blasfemy laws enforcinng this and other restictions on religious freedom and expression. Many Muslims believe that individuals guilty of such offenses should be killed and there are numerous examples of such actions even in the West. Few Muslims understand, however, that freedom, both religious and political is the very touchstone of modernity. And the intolerance enshrined by Mohmmed in the Koran and their clerics teach is at the root of the povery and backwardness rife throughtout the Muslim world. Ironiclly the Golden Age of Islam and the Caliphate was an era of toleration and relative freedom.
Molotov, Vyacheslav Mikhailovich - (Soviet Union, 1890-1986): Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov was a leading Soviet politician and diplomat amd staunch supporter of Josef Stalin. He was born in Kukarka (now Sovetsk in Kirov Oblast). His father was a shop clerk--not the best credetials for a Soviet leader. He developed revolutionary ideas at an early age. Molotov like Stalin was a revolutionary nom de guerre. He was also one of the few Old Bolsheviks to die a ntural death. He becme a leading figure in the Soviet government as a a protégé of Joseph Stalin (1920s). Molotov served as Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (Premier) (1930-41). As such, it wasMolotov as Primier who announced Stalin's Collctivization Program leading to the campaign against the peasantry and th Ukranian Famine. e then served as Minister of Foreign Affairs (1939-49 and again after Stalin's death (1953-56). He also served as First Deputy Premier from (1942-57). Nikita Khrushchev after achieving control of the Soviet Union dismissed him from the Presidium of the Central Committee for opposing his Destaninization effort. Molotov became the foreign ace of the Soviet Union. First this was with the NAZIs. As Foreign Minister, he was the principal Soviet signatory of the infamous NAZI–Soviet Non-aggression Pact which essentially launced Woeld war II. It was also referred tom as the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. The key provisions were a secret protocol that setout the partioning of Poland and essentialy Eastern Europe. The Soviets also agreed to supply vast quantities of critical war material to the NAZI war machine. Molotov knew of the attrocities and war crimes committed by the NKVD in the Soviet Union and areas occupied by the Red Army such as the Katyn massacre. Molotov negotiated with the NAZIs, primaru on issues concerning the partioning of Eastern Euroe, visting Berlin, meeting with Hitler (November 1940). The Non-aggression Pact made the Soviet Union and NAZI Germany allies until the German invasion (June 1941). At this pont, Molotob began diplomatic contats with the Western Allies and this continued after the War. He was regognized for his diplomatic skills and his blunt, determined, and forceful opponent of Western policies.. this continued until 1948 when he abrutly lost Stalin's favor. the first sign was stalin ordering the arrest of his Jewish wife, Polina Zhemchuzhina for treason (1948). And then Stalin replaced him as Forign Minister with Andrei Vyshinsky (1949). It is not known with any certainty what caused Stalin' state of mind. Stalin also was upset with mentioned Molotov's speech at the 19th Party Congress (1952). here is no way of knowing what was involvd here, but because Beria also had lost Stalin's favor, it was probably Stalin's way of beginning the process of doingway with the two men most of aware of stalin;s involvement in terible attrocitoes. In Molotov's case, he was an uncomfotable remoinder of stalin's alliance with Hitler. Khrushchev reports that Stalin had plans for 'finishing off' Molotov and Mikoyan. surprisingly, as he was about to be purged, Molotov after Stalin's death was a leading opponnt of Khrushchev's De-Stalinization effort. Molotov staunchly defended the policies and legacy of Stalin until his death in 1986. He sharply criticised Stalin's successors, especially Khrushchev. Apprently he did not object to the killing and Gulag, he just did not want to be one of the victims. a factor here is that if he repudiated Stalin, he would have been repudiating his own political carer and achievements.
Montgomery, Bernard Law - (UK, 1887-1976): The renowned British World War II leader was strictly disciplined by his stern Victorian mother. His father was a minister and Monty spent his boyhood days in Tasmania. Once he was caught smoking. His father took him into the family chapel and prayed with him, after which he said that he had forgiven him. When Monty turned around, his mother was waiting for him and announced, "God may have forgiven you, but I have not." She marched him off to be dealt with. I do not have details yet on how he was dressed as a boy. He is Britain's most admired World war II commander, but extremely controversial. He allienated many Americam commanders, especiall Gen. Eisenhower. Comments after the Battle of the Bulge were seen as insulting by American commanders.
Moody, Dwight L. - (US, 1837-99): Dwight Lyman Moody was a noted 19th century American evalgelist and religious publisher. His father was a stone mason, but died at an early age and Dwight and his siblingsd grew up in abject poverty. He was raised in the Unitarian Church, but when he later worked for his uncle, was required to attend the Congrecational Church. He was converted by his sunday school teacher (1865). This began a remarkable career as a evangelical preacher. He founded the Northfield School and Mount Hermon School in Massachusetts (now combined as the Northfield Mount Hermon School), Moody Church and Moody Bible Institute in Chicago, and the Colportage Association. We note him supporting sunday schools for working-class children in Chicago at the time it was emerging as a major American city. J.V Farwell (1825-1908) was a millionaire philanthropist and coworker who gave land for the first YMCA building in Chicago.
Morgan, John Pierpont - (U.S., 1837-1913): John Pierpont Morgan was the greatest financier in American history. He was of Welsh origins and born into a Connecticut banking family just as the United states was beginning to begin its transition from a backwater mostly rural country with an expeimental republican government to the industrial powerhouse of the 20th century. HAfter finishing his high chool, he studied in Europe. He played an important role in financing America's transition. He became known as "The Master of the Money," He helped create both General Electric and U.S. Steel as well becomingb involved in rail roading. He became the nation's foremost banker and one of the most successful bankers in the age of the "Robber Barons." He was in effect the unofficial central banker of the United States in the period before the Federal Reserve. At the time he was hailed as a master of finance by some and as a cut-throat capitalist by others. hat image was imprtalized in a photographic portrait by Edward Steichen. That same dichotomy continues to be the case today, largely depending on how one views capitalism and socialism.
Morison, Samuel Elliot - (U.S., 1887?-19??): Sammuel Elliot Morison is one of America's most eminent and eloquent historians. One of his less serious, but most charming books is his autobiography, One Boy's Boston, 1887-1901, published in 1962 by Houghton Miffin Company, Boston. Sammy lived in the same house, located at 44 Bimmer St. in Boston his entire life. Sammy lived in this house with several generations of Morrisons, surrounded as it was with history. He was brought up with his mother, grandmother, and great-great aumt. One photograph taken in 1891 shows Sammy at 4 years of age wearing a white or pastel colored dress, long ringlets, and holding a toy in his right hand. He also wore Fauntleroy suits as a boy.
Morrissey, Martin - ( ): Author Martin Morrissey in his biography entilted The Changing Years gives some attention to his clothes. Chapter 12 is entitled 'The Long and Short of It' and this deals with the writer's personal experiences of short trousers and in Chapter 13 he gives some information about his first pair of long trousers.
Morton, Dudley "Mush" - (United States, 1907-43): Dudley Walker Morton known as "Mush" was the most famed American submarine commander of World war II. Morton was born in Owensboro, Kentucky. He graduated from the Naval Academy (1930). While at Anapolis he acquired his nickname 'Mushmouth' lzter shortened to Mush. He married in Tsigtao, China, a treaty port (1936). He commanded the fleet sunmarine USS Wahoo (SS-238) during the peak of the Pacific War, taking her on on five combat patrols. The Wahoo sank at least 19 Japanese ships, more than any other submarine during a comparable period. Morton and Wahoo never returned from the last patrol.
Mosley, Alexander (U.K.): Diana Mitford, one of the noted Mitford sisters (Nancy, Unity, Diana, Deco, and ???). Diana had two sons, Alexander and Max. The 1941 photograph image here shows the two boys and their nanny (figure 1). Alexander is about 2.5 years and Max,
14 months. Alexander wears a very short dresses without socks and the strap shoes or sandals which were commonly worn by British boys for school or summer play wear.
Mountbatten, Lord Louis - (U.K., 1900-19 ): On the excellent series on his life, which he narrated himself, he showed a picture of him on his mother lap. He commented that like small boys in that period, he was dressed as a little girl. The series also had other childhood pictures, but he was usually dressed in sailor suits. He was schooled at home until he was 10 years old. He glossed over his school days, but did talk about the strict discipline for "snotties" on Navy ships when he entered the Navy.
Mussolini, Benito (Italy, 18??-1945): Mussolini was an Italian newspaper editor who led the Fascist movement and seized control of Italy. He joined Hitler in the Axis alliance. He had three children. He and his mistress were killed by partisans at the end of World War II.
Nadar, Gaspard-Felix Tournachon - (France, 1820-1910): Gaspard-Felix Nadar is one of the photographic giants of the 19th century. He is of some interest to HBC because of the many portarits he took, including family prtraits. His life, however, cuts a wondeful swaith through the 19th century and the extent and diversity of his activities and talents is breath taking. Photography was probably his most financially rewarding enterprise, but it was in fact only one part of his many varied life works.
Nassar, Gamal Abdel - (Egypt, 1918-70): Gamal Abdel-Nasser was the main proponent of a pan-Arabic socialism. he was born in the poverty stricken Alexandrian suburb of Bacos.. Nasser entered the military college (1936) which had opened its ranks to to lower-class applicants. He graduated and entered the Egyptian army on the eve of World War II (1938). He saw with some reason king Farouk as corupt and backward. He also objected to the continuing British influence in Egypt. He played a prominent role in founding the Free Officers (El-Dhobatt El-Ahrar), an underground organization. Nasser and other Free Officers like Sadat were impressed by the NAZIs for their military prowess and fight against the British. Nasser as an army officer, fought in the first Arab-Israeli war (1948). This experience made him a fervent bliever in the Arab desire to destroy Israel. The ineffiency of the Government in waging the war with Israel, was a leading reason leading to the The Free Officers Movement led by General Mohammed Naguib seizing power (1952). From the beginning Masser was the heart of the Free Officers, but General Naguib was a respected senior officer who served as a useful figure-head. King Farouk was forced to leave the country. His son Ahmad Fouad, still a todler, was declared King. The new Government asked the British to leave the country and the last British soldier left (1954). The Free Officers deposed Ahmad Fouad and declared Egypt a Republic (1953). Nasser proceeded to launch a social revolution aiming to create a modern, state that could bring Egyptiands out of poverty and he saw socialism as the way to accomplish this. Nasser was a gifted speaker and was able to inspire the Egyptian people with a heady brand of nationalism and socialism. He was not, however, a well educated man. Just as the NAZIs had impressed him and his colleages in the 1930s, the Soviets had impressed them after the War in the 1940s. They saw socialism and economic planning as the way to creade a modern new Egypt. The decisions he took in klarge measure explain the faikure of Egyot as a modern nation to this date.
Narmer (Egypt, 3100 BC): Narmer is believed to be a pharaoh of the Early Dynastic Period. Some beleve he was the successor to the Protodynastic pharaohs Scorpion and/or Ka. Many believe that he unified Upper amd Lower Egypt and founded the First Dynasty. The identity of Narmer is the of considerable hitoric discussion. Many beleve him to be First Dynasty pharaoh Menes, who is also commonly credited with the unification of Egypt. This is based on the Narmer Palette which shows Narmer as the unifier of Egypt. there are also two necropolis seals from the necropolis of Abydos that identify him as the first king of the First Dynasty. Narmer is often cited as the earliest person whose name is known to history.
Nelson, Horatio Lord (England, 1758-1805): Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson is widely seen as the greatest naval commander of all time. He was born into a middle class family in Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk (1758). He grewup in a form of genteel poverty. He was small and sickly. From an early age he desired to join the Royal Navy. This he managed though the influence of his uncle, Maurice Suckling. His talents were noted early. He rose rapidly through the ranks and benefitted by serving with leading Royal Navy commanders. He received his first command (1778). He became widely respected for inspirational leadership, an unsurpassed grasp of strategy, and most notably unconventional tactics. These led to a series of decisive naval victories over the French and Spanish during the Napoleonic Wars. He led front the front and paid a orice for it. He was wounded several times in his many combats. He lost an arm in the failed attempt to conquer Santa Cruz de Tenerife in the Canary Islands. He lost the sight in one eye in Corsica. He was finally shot and killed during the critical Battle of Trafalgar (1805). Nelson was first British commander to engage Napoleon in an important ways.
Newton, Issac (England, 1643-1727): Descartes for a time dominated the world of phsiocs, but made major errors. It was Issac Newton that corrected those theories, mking possible hige advances in phyics that would change the modern world. Sir Isaac Newton was born (1642). He was an English physicist and mathematician. He was described in his day before the advent of the term science as a natural philosopher. What we now know as science was still tied to philosphy. The French Enlightenment term was philosoph. Newton is universally recognized s one of the world's greatest scienists. His master work, Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy") laid the foundations for classical mechanics (1687). He made many contributions to science, any one of which would have established his reputation. He shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of calculus. But it is in physics for which he is best known. Newton often employing mathematics made seminal contributions to optics He is best know for his on gravity for which he is best known. Newton in Principia formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation, which dominated scientists' view of the physical universe for 3 centuries as scince developed -- until Einstein raised questions which could not be explained by Newtonian physics. He employed Kepler's laws of planetary motion and applied his mathematical description of gravity. He then usdg the same principles to account for the trajectories of comets, the tides, the precession of the equinoxes, and other cosmological and terestril phenomena. Newton ended lingering doubts about the validity of the heliocentrism. Newton demonstrated that the same natural laws could explain the motion objects on Earth and in the cosmos. He prediction that Earth should be shaped as an oblate spheroid a hypothesis that was later confirmed by others.
Noriega, Manuel - (Panama, 1934?-2017):
Noriega, Manuel - (Panama, 1934?-2017): Manuel Antonio Noriega was born to an unmarried washermonany of Colombian mixed race extraction in Panama City (1934?). His parents were unmarried. After his mother died, he was raised by his Godmother in the slum area of Terraplén. He was described as an oddly bookish child, always neatly dressed by his Godmother. Hewas active in the Socialist Party youth movement youth. He reported on its members for money to U.S. inteligence awents. He was raised by foster parents. He atended a prestigious high schools in Panama. He earned a scholarship to the Chorrillos Military School in Lima and at the School of the Americas. He was was commissioned a sub-lieutenant in Panama's voluntary National Guard (1962). He rapidly advanced through the ranks, primarily by deveioping a close relationship Gen. Omar Torrijos. Torrijos bedcame Panama's de facto leader after a coup (1968). Torrijos relied on him as his intelligence chief. Nioriega closely monitored Panamanians, especially Torrijos' political opponents. As intelligence chief, Noriega developed close ties with American intelligence agencies. Panama was of special importance to America because of the strategic importance of the Canal. Torrijos died in a still unexpalined plane crash (1981). Noriega became the head of the Defense Forces (1983). This made him like Torrijos before him, Panama's de facto leader. He renmamed the National Guard the Defense Forces. Noriega became a valued CIA asset and was paid millions of dollars for assistance to the U.S. throughout Latin America. He informally acted as liaison to Cuban dictator Fidel Castro. Noriega aided American authorities seize drugs and track money laundering through Panamanian banks. He provided intelligence on guerrilla and terrorist operatios. The relationship with the United States gradually deteriorated. Pananamanians began denonstraing for a democratic government. An important political opponent was murdered soon after Noriega seized power, presumably upon Noriega's orders (1985). Noriega began taking advantage of his position to benefit financially from cooperating with Narco Traficantes who offered him substabtially more money than he was receiving from the Americans. He defeated several attempted coups. He had coup leaders summarily shot. He was ressted for drug traficking after an American invasion (1989). As a result, democracy was restored and Panama is now a prosperous country.
Norris, George W. - (US, 1861-1944): George W. Norris was born in Sandusky, Ohio 1861). He had a long career in the U.S. Congress, most notably the Senate. George was the eleventh child of poor, uneducated farmers of Scots-Irish and Pennsylvania Dutch descent. Thanks to America's fine public education system, opportunities became available. He is best remembetred for his advocacy of progressive reforms. He was first elected to Congress in Theodore Roosevelt's Bull Moose camapign, but did not bolt the Republican Party. He was a noted anti-war Isolationist in World War I, becoming one of the Irreconciables that blocked ratification of President Wilson's Treaty (1919). He championed political reforms and opposed Northeasten monied groups, inluding railroads, banks, and stock brokets. Monopolies often called 'trusts' at the time were a major target of the Progressive Movement. Mid-Western families were especially angry with railroad momopolies. He was elected from Nebraska and became the progressive lion championing farmers. While nomimnally a Republican, he supported President Wilson's and Franklin Roosevelt's progressive reforms, especially the agricultural programs of the New Deal during the Depression. He is best known for his support of the Tennessee Valley Authority. As the great totalitarian powers moved toward war (1930s) his foreign policy views began to change, at first the Japanese militarists.
O'Neill, Eugene - (US, 1888-1953): Eugene O'Neill, the greatest American dramatist and winner of the Nobel Prize in 1936, was born in a Broaway hotel room in 1888. He was brought up in New York City and New London, Connecticut. He was the son of a famous romantic actor, James O'Neill and virtually raised in the theater. He accompanied his fanous father as he traveled around the country giving dramatic performanes. Eugene entered Princeton University (1906), but was expelled. He married (1909) and te young couple had a son, but divorced (1909). Eugene tried many different undertakings, gold prospector in Honduras, a seaman, but with little success. He lived in New York City's flophouses and drank heavily in cheap saloons. He contracted tuberculosis (1912). It was during his recovery while reading that he conceived the idea of writing plays.
Olivetti, Camilo - (Italy, 1868-1943): Camillo Olivetti was born in Ivrea, Italy (August 1868). We have no information about his childhood at this time. Ge do not know about his early education, but he attended the Politecnico di Torino. He studied under Galileo Ferraris. He graduatied with a focus on engineering. He went to England where he worked in a London factory to gain practical experience. England at the time was the most heavily industrialized country. He joined the socialist party while in England. Besides engineering, Olivetti was interested in cocial cencers, including federalism, local autonomy and democratic institutional reform. Olivetti was aare industrialist with such interests. While we do not have much information on his childhood, we do have some informaztion on his family.
Olivier, Sir Lawrence - (UK, 1907- ): The son of a clergyman, he grew up in a middle-class English family. I saw a lovely picture of him, he looked to be about 12 and he was dressed in a white sailor suit with a big black bow. He attended the St. Edward's School at Oxford. His first stage role was Katharina in an all boys production of Taming of a Screw.
Orff, Carl - (Germany, 1895-1982): Carl Orff was one of the most important German compsers in the 20th century. He is also noted for his work in music education. He was born in Bavaria during 1895. He came from a military family.
He studied at the Munich Academy of Music (19??-14). He served in the military during World War I. After the War he obtained musical positions at opera houses in Mannheim and Darmstadt. He also continued his musical education in Munich.
He was appointed head of a department and co-founder of the Guenther School for gymnastics, music, and dance in Munich (1925). Here he worked with young children and began to develop theories on music education. He was the author of the famous Carmina Burana (1937) which was very popular in Germany. He initiated a method of learning for small children based on rythm with percussions and xylophones and also on classical dance. This method was very popular in schools in Europe, mainly in Germany since 1924. It also spread to America.
Orwell, George - (England, 1903-50): Eric Arthur Blair, known to the world as George Orwell is one of the most influential authors of the 20th century. His first social insights were when he noticed as a boy that rich kids were treated better at school than boys from more modest families. Even so his biting satirical fiction was aimed not at the British class system od capitalism, but at the suposedly classless Soviet Union and totalitarian Communism.
George was born in India, the son of a British civil servant. He spent his earliest days there. His forst word was 'beastly'. About a year after he was born, thei mother brought George and his older sister Marjorie to England (1904). It was there he grew up. They settled in Henley-on-Thames. Their father remained in India and rarely visited the family. Their younger sister, Avril, was born in England (908.) George had little contact with his father until he retired from the Indian Civil Service (1912). They never bond. George saw his father to be dull and unimaginative. Orwell's best known books are Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four The focus of his work was imperialism and totalitarianism, both fascism and communism. In Animal Farm we lear that some individuals are 'more equal than others'. It is Nineteen Eighty-Four that had the greatest impact. We are introduced to Winston Smith who works in the Ministry of Truth (Mintrue). We also learn about Newspeak. It is used by the media to follow the arbitrary dictates of Big Brother propaganda. Smih conforms outwardlly, but can not help but have treasonable thoughts. He keeps a diary expressing jhis thoughts--a very dangerous step. He falls in love with Julia, a woman of the Party. Julia is both beautiful and brave. They both know they are doomed, but Julia sweats, "They can make you say anything -- anything --but they can't make you believe it. They can't get inside you."
Oswald, Lee Harvey - (US, 193?-63): The Kennedy assassin had a very difficult childhood. He was raised by a domineering mother who was extremely uptight about sex. They were also very poor. He had old clothes and the other children teased him. He hated school. His mother moved from the south to New York and he got teased more and about his accent. Finally they returned to the South, in part because of Lee's behavioral problems. His mother tried to control the lives of both her two sons.
Paine, Thomas -- (American colonies, 1737-1809): Thomas Paine was one of the Americab Founding Fathers. He an English-American political activist, philosopher, political theorist, and revolutionary. Thomas was born in England to a humblke Quaker family (1737). His social and Quaker roots undoubtedly influenced his social outlook and politics. He emigrated to Philadelphia (1774), landing square in the middle of the Colonial resistance to English colonial policies. The Continental Congress cinvened in Philadlphi, mjong it in essence the colonial capital. Massahusetts and helped influence the political fermet that led to revolution. Political ideas at the time were spread throughIn pamphleteering. Paine became the most influential pamphleteer in the Colonies. His writings were impassiomed statements of egalitarian, ideas and democratic faith. John Adamns would later write, "I know not whether any man in the world has had more influence on its inhabitants or affairs for the last thirty years than Tom Paine.’ (1805). He published perhaps the most important document in inciting rebellion--"Common Sense” (1776). It was immediately spread throughout the colonies thanks to Benjamin Franklin's postal system which the British did not control. "Common Sence" was the first important document advocating actual independence. He authored the “Crisis” papers during the Revolution. After the Revolution, Paine returned to Europe and published a defense of the French Revolution with “The Rights of Man.” His political views ewerevnot well receiuved in Englsnd and he was sentenced to a term in prison. After release, he penned his last great pamphlets: “The Age of Reason,” an exposition of institutionalized religion, and “Agrarian Justice,” a call for land reform.
Papandreouu, Andreas - (Greece, 1919-1996): Andreas Papandreouu is one of the best known Greek statesman and comes from a distinguished Greek family. The story of the Papandreou family begins on Chios Island and then continues to Patras, the United States, Athens, Sweden, Canada, and finally back to Athens). W know littlke about his childhood. He is recognized as Greek academic, politician, and statesman. He served as , Prime Minister of Greece (1981-1989, 1993-1996). He was born on the Aegean Island of Chios. His is the son of former Prime Minister Georgios Papandreou. He studied at the University of Athens and Harvard University. He served in the U.S. Navy and became a naturalized U.S. citizen. He returned to Greece to become the country's first Socialist Prime Minister, although many prommised reforms were not achieved. He had three sons and a daughter.
Parnell, Charles S. - (Ireland, 1846-91): Parnell was the "uncrowned king" of modern Irish nationality. He was born into a protestant land-owning family in County Wicklow. His mother was an American. I understand he was dressed in petticoats as a boy, but haven't researched his life yet. He was schooled in England, which I understand he hated. He entered Cambridge in 1865, but did not get a degree.
Figure 2.-- Soviet author Boris Leonidovich Pasternak came from an artistic family in Tsarist Russia. He was the oldest child of painter Leonid Pasternak (1862-1945) and concert pianist Roza Kaufman. His father was well known for illustrating Tolstoy's novels. Boris was born in Moscow (1890). Here we have the portrait of Boris drawn by his father. Thes drawing (black crayon on white paper) was done July 20, 1898. Boris was 8 years old. Source: Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.
Pasternak, Boris - (Russia, 1890-1962): Soviet author Boris Leonidovich Pasternak came from an artistic family in Tsarist Russia. He was the oldest child of painter Leonid Pasternak (1862-1945) and concert pianist Roza Kaufman. His father was well known for illustrating Tolstoy's novels. Boris was born in Moscow (1890). Here we have the portrait of Boris drawn by his father. Thes drawing (black crayon on white paper) was done July 20, 1898. Boris was 8 years old. Pasternak's attended a German Gymnasium in Moscow and then the University of Moscow. Influence by composer Scriabin, Pasternak, Pasternak at first prepared for ax career in musical composition (1904 to 1910). He finally decided that his calling was literature. Then came World War I and the Russian Revolution. Writing was a dangerous career choice after Stalin seized control of the Party and state. Pasternak seems to have steered clear of trouble by focusing primarily on non-political verse and doing translations. Trouble began irionicallyafter Stalin's death. Pasternak wrote his masterpiece, Dr. Zivago, but realizing it could not be published in the Soviet Union, had it smuggled to the West. It was published in Italy (1957). He was honored with a Nobel Prize for literature (1958). Soviet authorities using the KGB mounted a campaign against him. He was forced to decline the prize.
Pepys, Samuel - (England, 1633-1703): Samuel Pepys had an impoverished youth as the son of a tailor. He rose to be the modern equivelent of a cabinent minister in charge of naval affairs. A meteric rise for someome of his station. The opportunity arose as a result of the Civil War, Cromwell, the restoration of Charles II, and the plague--a heady brew indeed. He is most noted for his dairy. Although he kept it for only 9 years, it is a remarkable look into the 17th century life. [Tomalin]
Pollock, Maurice - (U.K., 1885-1918): Maurice Pollock was an English child actor and played mainly girls. Most of his early plays were put on by his Mother, who was an accomplished actress. Interestingly he played Little Lord Fauntleroy on the London stage--a role often played by girls because they had long hair. Pollocknas many of his generation was killed on the Western Front during World War II.
Polo, Marco - (Italy-Venice, 1254-1324): The Silk Road played a major role in Medieval history. Marco Polo was the most famous Westerner to travel the Silk Road, reach China, and return. He was a boy when he began his remarable journey. Chinese goods weee known to the West, but China itself was unknown and Polo's account was seemibly so fantastic that he was at first not believed
Pontremoli, Emmanuel (France, 1865-1956): Emmanuel Pontremoli was a distinuished French Architect and archeologist. He was born in Nice, the son of a Jewish rabbi. He was interested in painting, but took up architecture, studing under Louis-Jules André. Pontremoli won the “Grand prix de Rome”(1890). We note a photograph of his family in their home during the early 1900s. He worked with Théodore Reinach on a project to build an ancient Greek villa--Villa Kerylos (1902-08), He was elected to the “Académie des Beaux Arts” (1922). He taught architecture at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts and was appointed a director (1932). He also designed synagogues. One of his best known buildings is the Institute for Human Paleontology in Paris for Albert I, Prince of Monaco. We are not sure what happened to him and his family during the German occupation.
Presly, Elvis - (United States, 1935): Gladys Love Smith married Vernon Elvis Presley on June 17, 1933 in Verona, Mississippi. In December 1934, the young couple moved into a new two-room house on Old Saltillo Road in East Tupelo, Mississippi. This is where Elvis Presley was born a 4:35 a.m. on Tuesday, January 8, 1935. A twin brother, Jesse Presley, was stillborn, and buried the next day in nearby Priceville Cemetery. This is the earliest known photograph of the future King of Rock n' Roll.
Proust, Marcel (France, 1871-1922): Marcel's parents were solid French bourgeois. His father, Adrien Proust, was a respected doctor. His mother, Jeanne Weil, was from a prosperous, educated Jewish family from Alsace. Marcel was born in Paris during 1871 and the rise of the Pais Commune. He was a sickly child, suffering from asthma from his early childhood. We have only limited information on Marcel's boyhood clothes. Proust (and I think his bother) as a boy wore dresses and other skirted garments. He appears to have worn smocks in school. Gradually his different essays merged into one single project to write a more comprehensive work. The book turned into a novel that he would continue to write for the rest of his life. He mamed his book À la recherche du temps perdu (Remembrance of Things Past)--a classic of French literature.
Raleigh, Sir Walter: (England, 1552-1618): Sir Walter Raleigh was one of the important figures of the Elizabethan Age. Historians believe he was born about 1552 at Hayes Barton, Devonshire. He was a gifted courtier and became a favorite of Queen Elizabeth I. He was not only hansome and witty, but one of the Sea Dogs.
Randolph, John: (U.S., 1773-1833) Randolph was an American statesman born 1733 in Cawsons, Virginia. He was related to Edmund Randolph, Aide de Camp, to General Washington and Indian Princess Pocahontos. As a boy he appears to have worn adult-styled close and thde specialized boys' styles were just beginning to take hold. I'm not sure how he wore his hair as a young boy, but by the mid 1780s he was wearing it short, without a wig or queue.
Rasputin, Grigori Efimovich: (Russia, 1864/72-1916): Grigori Efimovich Rasputin was an uneducated Siberian mystic healer. He is one of the most picturesque figures of the 20th century. Virtually nothing is known about his childhood and early adult life. He was born in Pokrovskoe to a peasant family. The date of his birth is unknown, but there are many varied estimates (1864-72). This was a small, rural village in Tiumen Oblast. Pokrovskoe is in western Siberia on the Toura River near the foothills of the Ural Mountains. Pokrovskoe had only a few unpsaved streets. It was dominated by a large white church with a guilded dome. The gleaming church in the middler of a drab villsage must have affected the boys in the village. It certainly did young Grigori. Little is known about his education. Many Russians at the time received little or no education. Rasputin's education must have been very limited as he was illiterate. At a young age he developed a reputation for debauchery. Rasputin in Russian means the 'debauched one'. He also developed a reputation as a mystiqe and faith healer. And it it this reputation that unbelievably brouht him from Siberaian peasant poverty to the Tsar's household in St. Petersburg to save the Tsarevich Alexis.
Rathbone, Basil: Even as a child, Basildeveloped an interest in acting.
Books which he read then where the Sherlock Holmes books. He day dreamed about being this detective. Then one day he played him on the screen. Interesting, another childhood dream achievement story.
Ribbentrop, Joachim von - (German, 1893-1946): The NAZI Foreign Minister was reportedly rather dim, but did Hitler's bidding. He was the son of a demanding, whip lashing Prussian artillery officer who expected his unexceptional son to excel. I have no information on clothing yet. He spent some time in Britain in a private school. It did little good when he later came to Britain as the NAZI ambassador. He had no feeling for British sensibilities and was seen as highly offensive. He had no real influence on Hitler, but slavishly did his bidding. He was involved in negotiating the Pct of Steel with Italy, the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, nd Japan's adhession to the Axis. H lost influence with Hitler once the War bgan as Hotlr no longer neded diplomats. Ribbentrop had failed at his to mjor ssugnments, bring Britain into ananti-Soviet alliance and get Japan to attck the Sovit Union fom the East. He participated in the Holocust by presuring Axis allis to deport Js to NAZI deth camps. He was found guilty of war crimes after the War and hanged.
Richardson, Friend - (U.S., 18??-19??): Friend William Richardson was raised from a Quaker family in Michigan. He was newspaper publisher. A state park in Humboldt County was named after him. He was govenor of California from 1923-27. A photograph in the 1920s shows him his 12-year old son at a National Guard camp wearing a knickers suit.
Riis, Jacob - (Denmark/U.S., 1849-19??): Jacob Riis was born in Ribe, Denmark during 1849. His parents had 15 children. He was the third oldest. I know nothing about his childhood and education, but know he became a carpenter in Copenhagen. He emmigrated to America after the Civil War in 1870. After coming to America, Riis had trouble finding work and for a while was homeless. Apparently the Police provided lodging houses for the indigent. I had never heard of this before.
Riis worked as a menial labor, but eventually became a journalist. This is of course quite impressive, because journalism requiring effective English-language skills is a difficult profession for foreigners to enter. He began working for a New York bureau (1873). He began working for the South Brooklyn News (1874). Then he became a police reporter for the New York Tribune (1877), one of the most influntial newspapers in America. As a result of his experiences, Riis became a crusader for the ppor. Riis argued against the prevailing attitude in America. He saw the poor as "victims" rather than the indolent who were responsible for their plight. Riis became one of the first photo journalists when he was hired by the New York Evening Sun. Riis began using flash powder which allowed him to photograph interiors as well as exteriors, providing images of slum live never before available. His images of children are especially poignent. He was one of the first muckraking journalist.
Rilke, Rene (Rainer) Maria (German, 1875-1926): Rilke was a German lyric poet was for a time served a secretary to the renowed French sculptor Rodin. He evetually obtained the patronage of wealthy Germans. His prose and verse his highly musical and pervaded by a strong religious mysticism. As a boy he was codeled by his mother. She developed refined tastes in him and dressed in frilly clothes. When his father abandoned the family, he had to pursue his education in harsh military schools where the other boys did not appreciate his refinements.
Roberts, John G. Jr. - (United States, 1955- ): One of the primary goals of the conservative movement in the United States is to change the judicial philosophy of the Supre Court. His first Supreme Court appoint was John G. Roberts Jr. He was roundly received as a brilliant legal mind. Just where he will take the court remains to be seen. He was confirmed as Chief Justice with little opposition in the Senate. current nominee for the Supreme Court. Interesting when President Bush introduced him, the press had a great deal to say about hiw his children were dressed.
Rogers, Will - (United States, 1879-1935 ): William Penn Adair Rogers was born into a Cherokee family on Indian Territory now Oklahoma (1879). He was was one if the most appealing personality in the history of show business---the opposite of the modern woke generation. He had an amazing career: stage and film actor, vaudeville performer, cowboy, humorist, newspaper columnist, and social commentator. He made three trips around the world, 71 films (50 silent films and 21 talkies), performed countless times on various stages, and wrote more than 4,000 nationally syndicated newspaper columns. He became popular in the 1920s and was a huge star (1930s). He was the leading humorist of the 1930s at the time if his death and the highest paid of Hollywood film stars. He first worked as a cowboy where he learned his trademark rope trucks. He was killed with aviator friend Wiley Post when their airplane crashed in northern Alaska. His show business career began with a Vaudeville cowbiy rope act. This led to success in the Ziegfeld Follies which in turn led a movie career. His act was not just twirling a rope which he was very good at, but while twirling, telling jokes along wirh folksy social criticusm. His movies led to a syndicated newspaper column which along with radio appearances gave him mation-wide visability. Rogers was an aviation ethnthisiast. He traceled by air and wrote first-hand accounts of his travels. With earthy jokes/anecdotes and gente atyle enabled him to poke fun at gangsters, prohibition, politicians, government programs, and a host of other controversial topics without offending. He was even able to target gangsters. The public loved hom and his folky routiens. He was areal humorist, unlike modern comedians think that just mentioning Presiden Trump's name and a profanity is the height of creativity. He couched his aphorisms in humorous terms. They were widely quoted and many are still rememvered today, like "I am not a member of an organized political party. I am a Democrat." And about the Depression, he quipped, "Anerica is the first country in the history of the worid to go to the poorhouse in an automobile." Rogers married Betty Blake (1908â€“35). The had four children.
Figure 3.--Future President Franklin Roosevelt in this picture taken with his father at about 6 years of age (1888) had his curls cut, but was still dressed in a kilt suit.
Roosevelt, Franklin D. - (United Sates, 1882-1945): The 30th president is generally considered to be the most important American statesman of the 20th century. He led America through the two most serious crises of the century, the Great Depression and World War II. He inspired confidence and despite his patrician origins came to be loved by the least favored Americans. Thus when other countries turned to totalitarianism and dictatorship, American democractic society grew stronger. His policies helped to give voice of the American worker through trade unions. The resulting prosperity of the American worker created the basis for the success of the American economy in the second half of the 20th Century. He was born into a wealthy family with an elderly father. He had a charmed childhood at his father's Hyde Park, New York estate. He was a cousin of President Theodore Roosevelt, whose niece he married in 1905.
Rozerot, Jacques - (France, 1886?- ): Son of Emile Zola. There is a picture of taken in 1899 by a bicycle. I'd guess he is about 13 and has long, girlish hair and is wearing knickers and short black socks.
Rockefellers - (United States): The Rockefellers were as close to royalty as an American has ever had. The family's wealth was created by John D. Rockerfeller who turned the caotic American oil industry into a huge monopoly and in the process made himself the richest man in the world. He was raised frugally and despite great wealth raised his children frugally. The same was true to a lesser extent for the grand children who did wear more fashionable clothes.
Rosenberg, Alfred (Estonia/Germany, 1893-1946): Alfred Rosenberg styled himself as the chief Nazi philosopher. . Hitler felt some loyalty to him because he was an early NAZI member, but had little respect for him. Which is why he chose him to lead the Pasrty while he was jailed. He did not have to worry about being replaced. Rosenberg's best known book was The Myth of the Twentieth Century which postulasted the existence of two opposing races: the Aryan race which created all values and culture, and the Jewish race which was ace of cultural corruption. Hitler dismissed his books as writings no one could understand, but appreciate the justification for acting against the Jews. Hitler during the War appointed him Reichminister for the Eastern Occupied Territories. It proved to be a powerless appointment. Himmler had control of the police ad Göring controlled the economy. Rosenberg was seen as a weakling and sloppy administrator, disliked by alkmost all the other top NAZIs. Ironically, Rosenberg was right about the best NAZI policy for the EWast. He wanted to asppeal to anti-Bolshevik, nationalists elemebnts who were prepasred to receive the Germans as liberators and fight with them again Staln. Hitler had no time for such notions, especially the idea of armoing Slavs. He, Himmler, and Göring wanted to expolit the East as rapidly and ruthlessly as possible. Great crimes were commited in the East. But Rosenberg without control over the police or para-military formations was not responsible for the attricu\ities. His writings, however, helped lay the ideological foundation of the Holocaust.
Rothschild, Albert Salomon von (Austria, 1844-1911): Albert Salomon von Rothschild was a prominant banker in the Austro-Hungarian Empire and an important member of the Austrian Rothschild family.
Hw was born in Vienna (1844). His father was Anselm von Rothschild (1803-1874). His mother was Charlotte von Rothschild (1807-1859). He was their youngest child and known in the family as "Salbert". He went to school in Vienna and Brünn/Brno. When his father died (1874), his brothers (Nathaniel and Ferdinand) inherited most of the family's extensive real estate and art collection. Albert inherited the family businesses--baking and railways. The once extensive communication between Albert's Austrian branch of the family and the English branch had declined significantly. Albert took steps to revive the exchnge of commercial and political information. He married Baroness Bettina Caroline de Rothschild (1858-1892) of Paris, a daughter of Alphonse James de Rothschild (1876). They had seven children. The Baron appears to have enjoyed photographt as a hobby.
Rumsfielfd, Donald - (United States, 1931- ): Since the 911 attack on America, Secretary of Defence Don Rumsfield with his laconic, no-nonscence appearances at Pentagon news conferences has become the only media-star of the Bush administration. Don was the son of a naval officer during World War II. Before the War during the 1930s he wore coordinated sunsuits with his big sister. As an older boy during the War he wore self-belted short pants.
Ruskin, John (England, 1819-1900): John Ruskin was one of England's most respected Victorian thinkers. Some have called him the most influentional cultural figure of his day. He had a strict if protected childhood. While HBC at this time has little information on how he was dressed as a child, we do know that he wore dresses as a small boy. Available information, however, provides some fascination insights into child rearing practices in the Victorian era.
Ruth, George Herman "Babe" Jr. (1895–1948): The "Babe" also knon as "The Bambino" and "The Sultan of Swat" is perhaps the greatest ikon in American sports. The only close competitor has to be Michael Jordon. George was a handful as a boy as he grew up in Baltimore, Maryland. He was a big boy getting into trouble, so he was turned over to a Catholic orphanage--St. Mary's. The Catholic brothers probably saved him smd chsneled his energy into baseball. They got him on the Baltimore Orioles--then a mijnor league team(1914). Within months he was playing for the Red Sox. He played in the major leagues from 1914 to 1935. The Boston Red Sox sold Ruth to the New York Yankees (1919). This became known as the "curse of the Bambino", Boston never won a World Series again until 2004. It was, however, the making of the then moribund Yankees. Ruth was a central figure in laaunching the Yankee dynasty. The Yankees and Yankee Stadiym became known as "the house Ruth built". The Yankees moved him permanently to the outfield. This was important because it meant he could play every day and his hitting could come to the fore. His home run record of 60 held for 60 years (1927). He was much more than just a slugger. He became the greatest hitter in baseball history, dominating the American league during the 1920s. He lived large, his personal charm made him a major figure of the "Roaring Twenties". He kept had a soft place in his heart for kids all his life. He would visit orphans and pass out gifts.
Crane, Nicholas. Mercantor: The Man Who Mapped the Planet (Henry Holt), 348p.
Tomalin, Claire. Samuel Pepys: The Unequalled Self (Knopf: 2003), 470p.